International Journal of Vascular Medicine / 2010 / Article / Fig 4

Review Article

Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

Figure 4

Indirect effects of caffeine on VSMC. Caffeine acts on the endothelial cell increasing cytoplasmic which will form the calcium-calmodulin complex which activates the nitric oxide synthase enzyme to produce nitric oxide. This diffuses to the VSMC.