Table 1: Summary of the vascular effects of caffeine.

StructureType of effectEffectReference

EndotheliumDirectActivates the ryanodine channels in the ERZucchi,1997 [27]
Endo, 1977 [28]

VSMCDirectActivates the ryanodine channels in the ERKaraki, 1988 [29]
Activates the nonselective channel for cationsGuerrero, 1994 [30]
Inhibits the cAMP phosphodiesteraseButcher, 1963 [31]; Ahn, 1988 [32]
Hatano, 1995 [33]
Inhibits the IP3 receptorMissiaen, 1994 [34]
Inhibits MLC kniaseOzaki, 1990 [35]
Increases “noncontractile” Ca2+Rembold, 1995 [36]
Inhibits voltage-dependent Ca2+ channelsMartin, 1989 [37]; Hughes, 1990 [38]
Blocks adenosine receptorsSattin, 1970 [39]

VSMCIndirectIncreases the production of nitric oxideHatano, 1995 [33]; Umemura, 2006 [40]
Increases the production of reninTofovic, 1996 [41]; Jackson, 1991 [42]
Stimulates the sympathetic systemCorti, 2002 [43]; Robertson, 1978 [44]

VSMC: vascular smooth muscle cell, ER: endoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+: calcium, and MLC: myosin light chain.