Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 187872, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/187872
Review Article

The Current Role of Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography in the Management of Carotid Atherosclerosis: Foundations and Advances

Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapeutics, Department of Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA

Received 25 August 2011; Revised 1 December 2011; Accepted 5 December 2011

Academic Editor: Mark Morasch

Copyright © 2012 Kelly R. Byrnes and Charles B. Ross. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. T. Longstreth Jr., L. Shemanski, D. Lefkowitz, D. H. O'Leary, J. F. Polak, and S. K. Wolfson Jr., “Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis defined by ultrasound and the risk of subsequent stroke in the elderly. The cardiovascular health study,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2371–2376, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Bogousslavsky, G. van Melle, and F. Regli, “The Lausanne Stroke Registry: analysis of 1,000 consecutive patients with first stroke,” Stroke, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1083–1092, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. W. Petty, R. D. Brown Jr., J. P. Whisnant, J. D. Sicks, W. M. O'Fallon, and D. O. Wiebers, “Ischemic stroke subtypes: a population-based study of incidence and risk factors,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2513–2516, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. D. Rosamond, A. R. Folsom, L. E. Chambless et al., “Stroke incidence and survival among middle-aged adults: 9-Year follow- up of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 736–743, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. T. Schneider, B. Kissela, D. Woo et al., “Ischemic stroke subtypes: a population-based study of incidence rates among blacks and whites,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1552–1556, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. R. L. Sacco, D. E. Kargman, Q. Gu, and M. C. Zamanillo, “Race-ethnicity and determinants of intracranial atherosclerotic cerebral infarction. The Northern Manhattan stroke study,” Stroke, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. J. Wityk, D. Lehman, M. Klag, J. Coresh, H. Ahn, and B. Litt, “Race and sex differences in the distribution of cerebral atherosclerosis,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1974–1980, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. G. Brott, J. L. Halperin, S. Abbara et al., “2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/ SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Stroke Association, American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American,” Vascular Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 35–77, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  9. M. Heron, D. L. Hoyert, S. L. Murphy, J. Xu, K. D. Kochanek, and B. Tejada-Vera, “Deaths: final data for 2006,” National Vital Statistics System Reports, vol. 57, no. 14, pp. 1–134, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. M. Minino, J. Xu, and K. D. Kochanek, Deaths: preliminary Data for 2008, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  11. J. S. Fine-Edelstein, P. A. Wolf, D. H. O'Leary et al., “Precursors of extracranial carotid atherosclerosis in the Framingham Study,” Neurology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1046–1050, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. I. Meissner, J. P. Whisnant, B. K. Khandheria et al., “Prevalence of potential risk factors for stroke assessed by transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography: the SPARC study. Stroke Prevention: assessment of Risk in a Community,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 862–869, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. “Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 325, no. 7, pp. 445–453, 1991.
  14. C. Warlow, B. Farrell, A. Fraser, P. Sandercock, and J. Slattery, “Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST),” Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9113, pp. 1379–1387, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. R. Naylor, P. M. Rothwell, and P. R. Bell, “Overview of the principal results and secondary analyses from the European and North American randomised trials endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 115–129, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. “Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no. 18, pp. 1421–1428, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. P. M. Rothwell and L. B. Goldstein, “Carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: asymptomatic carotid surgery trial,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2425–2427, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. A. AbuRahma and K. Jarrett, “Duplex scanning of the carotid arteries,” in Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis, A. AbuRahma and J. Bergan, Eds., pp. 60–88, Springer, London, UK, 2nd edition, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Zierler and D. Strandness, “Noninvasive dynamic and real-time assessment of extracranial cerebrovasculature,” in Cerebral Blood Flow: Physiologic and Clinical Aspects, J. Wood, Ed., pp. 311–323, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  20. E. G. Grant, C. B. Benson, G. L. Moneta et al., “Carotid artery stenosis: gray-scale and Doppler US diagnosis—society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference,” Radiology, vol. 229, no. 2, pp. 340–346, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. M. J. Gough, “Preprocedural imaging strategies in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1215–1218, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. M. Anzidei, A. Napoli, F. Zaccagna et al., “Diagnostic accuracy of colour Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography and blood-pool-enhanced MR angiography in assessing carotid stenosis: a comparative study with DSA in 170 patients,” Radiologia Medica, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 54–71, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Anzidei, B. Cavallo Marincola, A. Napoli et al., “Low-dose contrast-enhanced time-resolved MR angiography at 3 T: diagnostic accuracy for treatment planning and follow-up of vascular malformations,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 1181–1192, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. A. F. AbuRahma, M. Srivastava, P. A. Stone et al., “Critical appraisal of the Carotid Duplex Consensus criteria in the diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. S. B. Feinstein, “Contrast ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery vasa vasorum and atherosclerotic plaque neovascularization,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 236–243, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. G. M. Biasi, A. Froio, E. B. Diethrich et al., “Carotid plaque echolucency increases the risk of stroke in carotid stenting: the imaging in carotid angioplasty and risk of stroke (ICAROS) study,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 756–762, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. C. Krogias, C. Henneböhl, B. Geier et al., “Transcranial ultrasound perfusion imaging and perfusion-MRI-A pilot study on the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in severe carotid artery stenosis,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1973–1980, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. A. F. AbuRahma, S. Abu-Halimah, J. Bensenhaver et al., “Optimal carotid duplex velocity criteria for defining the severity of carotid in-stent restenosis,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 589–594, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. B. K. Lal, R. W. Hobson 2nd, B. Tofighi, I. Kapadia, S. Cuadra, and Z. Jamil, “Duplex ultrasound velocity criteria for the stented carotid artery,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 63–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. J. A. Rizzo, A. Dodge, P. White, and E. D. Martin, “Magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of carotid stent patency,” Perspectives in Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 261–263, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. M. J. Davies, P. D. Richardson, N. Woolf, D. R. Katz, and J. Mann, “Risk of thrombosis in human atherosclerotic plaques: role of extracellular lipid, macrophage, and smooth muscle cell content,” British Heart Journal, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 377–381, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. Falk, “Why do plaques rupture?” Circulation, vol. 86, supplement 6, pp. III30–III42, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Falkowski, M. Parafiniuk, W. Poncyljusz, M. Kaczmarczyk, and G. Wilk, “Ultrasonographic and histological analysis of atheromatous plaques in carotid arteries and apoplectic complications,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. 78–82, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Z. Y. Li, V. Taviani, and J. H. Gillard, “The impact of wall shear stress and pressure drop on the stability of the atherosclerotic plaque,” in Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS '08), pp. 1373–1376, August 2008. View at Scopus
  35. Y. J. Xue, P. Y. Gao, Q. Duan, Y. Lin, and C. B. Dai, “Preliminary study of hemodynamic distribution in patient-specific stenotic carotid bifurcation by image-based computational fluid dynamics,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 558–565, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. B. K. Lal, K. W. Beach, and D. S. Sumner, “Intracranial collateralization determines hemodynamic forces for carotid plaque disruption,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1461–1471, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. A. R. Naylor, “The importance of initiating "best medical therapy" and intervening as soon as possible in patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease: time for a radical rethink of practice,” Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 773–782, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. K. Lal, R. W. Hobson 2nd, J. Goldstein et al., “In-stent recurrent stenosis after carotid artery stenting: life table analysis and clinical relevance,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1162–1169, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. B. K. Lal, R. W. Hobson 2nd, J. Goldstein et al., “Carotid artery stenting: is there a need to revise ultrasound velocity criteria?” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 58–66, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. S. F. Stanziale, M. H. Wholey, T. N. Boules, F. Selzer, and M. S. Makaroun, “Determining in-stent stenosis of carotid arteries by duplex ultrasound criteria,” Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 346–353, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. P. J. Nederkoorn and M. M. Brown, “Optimal cut-off criteria for duplex ultrasound for the diagnosis of restenosis in stented carotid arteries: review and protocol for a diagnostic study,” BMC Neurology, vol. 9, article 36, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  42. A. Willfort-Ehringer, R. Ahmadi, D. Gruber et al., “Arterial remodeling and hemodynamics in carotid stents: a prospective duplex ultrasound study over 2 years,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 728–734, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. S. Chahwan, M. T. Miller, J. P. Pigott, R. C. Whalen, L. Jones, and A. J. Comerota, “Carotid artery velocity characteristics after carotid artery angioplasty and stenting,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 523–526, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. B. K. Lal, E. A. Kaperonis, S. Cuadra, I. Kapadia, and R. W. Hobson 2nd, “Patterns of in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting: classification and implications for long-term outcome,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 833–840, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. P. Cao and P. DeRango, “Carotid artery disease: stenting,” in Rutherford's Vascular Surgery, J. Cronenwett and J. Johnston, Eds., pp. 1469–1486, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 7th edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  46. H. Sadideen, P. R. Taylor, and T. S. Padayachee, “Restenosis after carotid endarterectomy,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 1625–1630, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. E. F. Bernstein, S. Torem, and R. B. Dilley, “Does carotid restenosis predict an increased risk of late symptoms, stroke, or death?” Annals of Surgery, vol. 212, no. 5, pp. 629–636, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. A. Mattos, A. R. Shamma, N. Rossi et al., “Is duplex follow-up cost-effective in the first year after carotid endarterectomy?” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 91–95, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Bond, K. Rerkasem, A. R. Naylor, A. F. Aburahma, and P. M. Rothwell, “Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of patch angioplasty versus primary closure and different types of patch materials during carotid endarterectomy,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1126–1135, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. A. F. Aburahma, “Duplex criteria for determining ≥50% and ≥80% internal carotid artery stenosis following carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty,” Vascular, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. T. Wolff, J. Guirguis-Blake, T. Miller et al., “Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis,” Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 50, Evidence Synthesis, Rockville, Md, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  52. S. W. Cheng, L. L. Wu, A. C. Ting, H. Lau, and J. Wong, “Screening for asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients with peripheral vascular disease: a prospective study and risk factor analysis,” Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 303–309, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. V. Nambi, L. Chambless, A. R. Folsom et al., “Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 15, pp. 1600–1607, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  54. B. Coll, V. Nambi, and S. B. Feinstein, “New advances in noninvasive imaging of the carotid artery: CIMT, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and vasa vasorum,” Current Cardiology Reports, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 497–502, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  55. D. Staub, M. B. Patel, A. Tibrewala et al., “Vasa vasorum and plaque neovascularization on contrast-enhanced carotid ultrasound imaging correlates with cardiovascular disease and past cardiovascular events,” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. G. L. Faggioli, R. Pini, R. Mauro et al., “Identification of carotid 'vulnerable plaque' by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: correlation with plaque histology, symptoms and cerebral computed tomography,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 238–248, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. D. A. Clevert, W. H. Sommer, P. Zengel, A. Helck, and M. Reiser, “Imaging of carotid arterial diseases with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS),” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 68–76, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed