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International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 406236, 9 pages
Review Article

Restenosis and Therapy

1Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest 1089, Hungary
2Department of Vascular Surgery, Semmelweis University, Budapest 1122, Hungary
3Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent Istvan University, Budapest 1078, Hungary

Received 28 September 2011; Revised 11 November 2011; Accepted 5 December 2011

Academic Editor: Christopher G. Kevil

Copyright © 2012 Laszlo Denes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The vascular disease involves imbalanced function of the blood vessels. Risk factors playing a role in development of impaired vessel functions will be briefly discussed. In ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), ischemic hypoxia is one of the cardinal risk factors of restenosis. Various insults are shown to initiate the phenotype switch of VSMCs. The pathological process, leading to activated inflammatory process, complement activation, and release of growth factors, initiate the proliferation of VSMCs in the media and cause luminal narrowing and impaired vascular function. The review summarizes the alteration process and demonstrates some of the clinical genetic background showing the role of complement and the genotypes of mannose-binding lectin (MBL2). Those could be useful markers of carotid restenosis after stent implantation. Gene therapy and therapeutic angiogenesis is proposed for therapy in restenosis. We suggest a drug candidate (iroxanadine), which ensures a noninvasive treatment by reverse regulation of the highly proliferating VSMCs and the disturbed function of ECs.