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International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 985025, 8 pages
Research Article

The Effects of Walking or Walking-with-Poles Training on Tissue Oxygenation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

1Department of Veterans Affairs, Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Edward Hines Jr., VA Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA
2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
3Department of Veterans Affairs, Research & Development, Edward Hines Jr., VA Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA
4Cooperative Studies Program, Department of Veterans Affairs, Edward Hines Jr., VA Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA

Received 3 July 2012; Revised 27 August 2012; Accepted 28 August 2012

Academic Editor: Erich Minar

Copyright © 2012 Eileen G. Collins et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This randomized trial proposed to determine if there were differences in calf muscle StO2 parameters in patients before and after 12 weeks of a traditional walking or walking-with-poles exercise program. Data were collected on 85 patients who were randomized to a traditional walking program ( ) or walking-with-poles program ( ) of exercise training. Patients walked for 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Seventy-one patients completed both the baseline and the 12-week follow-up progressive treadmill tests ( traditional walking and walking-with-poles). Using the near-infrared spectroscopy measures, StO2 was measured prior to, during, and after exercise. At baseline, calf muscle oxygenation decreased from % prior to the treadmill test to % at peak exercise. The time elapsed prior to reaching nadir StO2 values increased more in the traditional walking group when compared to the walking-with-poles group. Likewise, absolute walking time increased more in the traditional walking group than in the walking-with-poles group. Tissue oxygenation decline during treadmill testing was less for patients assigned to a 12-week traditional walking program when compared to those assigned to a 12-week walking-with-poles program. In conclusion, the 12-week traditional walking program was superior to walking-with-poles in improving tissue deoxygenation in patients with PAD.