Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 643589, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/643589
Research Article

Prevalence, Correlates, and Prognosis of Peripheral Artery Disease in Rural Ecuador—Rationale, Protocol, and Phase I Results of a Population-Based Survey: An Atahualpa Project-Ancillary Study

1School of Medicine, Universidad Espíritu Santo-Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador
2Air Center 3542, P.O. Box 522970, Miami, Fl 33152-2970, USA
3School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center, L-4 Room 158, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
4Gastroenterology Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
5Sleep Disorders Center, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
6Community Center, Villa Club Etapa Cosmos Mz 15 Villa 42, Atahualpa, Daule, Guayas, Ecuador
7Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8086, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA

Received 23 May 2014; Accepted 28 July 2014; Published 21 September 2014

Academic Editor: Robert M. Schainfeld

Copyright © 2014 Oscar H. Del Brutto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. R. Omran, “The epidemiologic transition. A theory of the epidemiology of population change,” The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 509–538, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. M. Lavados, A. J. M. Hennis, J. G. Fernandes et al., “Stroke epidemiology, prevention, and management strategies at a regional level: Latin America and the Caribbean,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 362–372, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. O. H. Del Brutto, C. Dong, T. Rundek, M. S. V. Elkind, V. J. Del Brutto, and R. L. Sacco, “Cardiovascular health status among Caribbean Hispanics living in northern Manhattan and Ecuadorian natives/mestizos in rural coastal Ecuador: a comparative study,” Journal of Community Health, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 634–641, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. G. R. Fowkes, D. Rudan, I. Rudan et al., “Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis,” The Lancet, vol. 382, no. 9901, pp. 1329–1440, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Murabito, J. C. Evans, K. Nieto, M. G. Larson, D. Levy, and P. W. F. Wilson, “Prevalence and clinical correlates of peripheral arterial disease in the Framingham Offspring Study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 143, no. 6, pp. 961–965, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. T. Alzamora, R. Forés, G. Pera et al., “Ankle-brachial index and the incidence of cardiovascular events in the Mediterranean low cardiovascular risk population ARTPER cohort,” BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, vol. 13, article 119, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. Gronewold, D. M. Hermann, N. Lehmann et al., “Ankle-brachial index predicts stroke in the general population in addition to classical risk factors,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 545–550, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. M. McDermott, “Ankle-brachial index screening to improve health outcomes: where is the evidence?” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 362–363, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. J. Salameh, T. Rundek, B. Boden-Albala et al., “Self-reported peripheral arterial disease predicts future vascular events in a community-based cohort,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1423–1428, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. S. Lin, C. M. Olson, E. S. Johnson, and E. P. Whitlock, “The ankle-brachial index for peripheral artery disease screening and cardiovascular disease prediction among asymptomatic adults: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. preventive services task force,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 333–341, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. A. Moyer, “Screening for peripheral artery disease and cardiovascular disease risk assessment with the ankle-brachial index in adults: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 342–348, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. U. Odenigbo, C. Ajaero, and O. C. Oquejiofor, “Prevalence of Peripheral artery disease in adult hypertensive patients in,” Sahel Medical Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Guerchet, V. Aboyans, P. Mbelesso et al., “Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease in elder general population of two cities of central Africa: bangui and Brazzaville,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 164–169, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Woo and J. Leung, “Does measurement of ankle-brachial index contribute to prediction of adverse Health outcomes in older Chinese people?” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1017–1023, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Nakdisse, L. R. Ramos, F. Moreira et al., “A risk score for predicting peripheral artery disease in individuals 75 years or older,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 630–636, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  16. O. H. del Brutto, E. Pe, E. Ochoa et al., “Door-to-door survey of cardiovascular Health, stroke, and ischemic Heart disease in rural coastal Ecuador—the Atahualpa Project: methodology and operational definitions,” International Journal of Stroke, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 367–371, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  17. O. H. Del Brutto, “Implications and expectancies of the “Atahualpa Project”: a population-based survey designed to reduce the burden of stroke and cardiovascular diseases in rural Ecuador,” Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 363–365, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  18. O. H. Del Brutto, R. M. Mera, R. Farfán, and P. R. Castillo, “Cerebrovascular correlates of sleep disorders—rational and protocol of a door-to-door survey in rural coastal Ecuador,” Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1030–1039, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. G. C. Leng and F. G. R. Fowkes, “The Edinburgh claudication questionnaire: an improved version of the WHO/Rose Questionnaire for use in epidemiological surveys,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1101–1109, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Korhonen, H. Kautiainen, and P. Aarnio, “Pulse pressure and subclinical peripheral artery disease,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 242–245, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  21. O. H. Del Brutto, L. Idrovo, A. Mosquera et al., “Stroke in rural Ecuador: a three-phase, door-to-door survey,” Neurology, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 1974–1975, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. H. Del Brutto, M. Santamaría, M. Zambrano et al., “Stroke in rural coastal Ecuador: a community-based survey,” International Journal of Stroke, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 365–366, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. Cosín, E. Asín, J. Marrugat et al., “Prevalence of angina pectoris in Spain,” European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 323–330, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Hatano, “Experience from a multicentre stroke register: a preliminary report,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 541–553, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. López-Bescós, J. Cosín, R. Elosua et al., “Prevalencia de angina y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en las diferentes comunidades autónomas de España: estudio PAMES,” Revista Española de Cardiología, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1045–1056, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  26. D. M. Lloyd-Jones, Y. Hong, D. Labarthe et al., “Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: the American heart association's strategic impact goal through 2020 and beyond,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 586–613, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Block, A. M. Hartman, and C. M. Dresser, “A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 453–469, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. E. Pérgola, C. L. White, J. W. Graves et al., “Reliability and validity of blood pressure measurement in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes study,” Blood Pressure Monitoring, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Hung, W. Willett, A. Merchant, B. A. Rosner, A. Ascherio, and K. J. Joshipura, “Oral health and peripheral arterial disease,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 1152–1157, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. U. Soto-Barreras, J. O. Olvera-Rubio, J. P. Loyola-Rodriguez et al., “Peripheral arterial disease associated with caries and periodontal disease,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 486–494, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. V. Aboyans, M. H. Criqui, P. Abraham et al., “Measurement and interpretation of the ankle-brachial index: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 126, no. 24, pp. 2890–2909, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. G. R. Fowkes, G. D. Murray, I. Butcher et al., “Ankle brachial index combined with Framingham risk score to predict cardiovascular events and mortality: a meta-analysis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 300, no. 2, pp. 197–208, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Jain, K. Liu, L. Ferrucci et al., “Declining walking impairment questionnaire scores are associated with subsequent increased mortality in peripheral artery disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 61, no. 17, pp. 1820–1829, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Nordansting, C. Wann-Hansson, J. Karlsson, M. Lundstrom, M. Pettersson, and M. B. Morgan, “Vascular quality of life questionnaire-6 facilitates health-related quality of life assessment in peripheral arterial disease,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 700–707, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. T. Hirsch and S. Duval, “The global pandemic of peripheral artery disease,” The Lancet, vol. 382, no. 9901, pp. 1312–1314, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Peñaherrera, F. Pow-Chon-Long, and O. H. Del Brutto, “Low prevalence of ischemic heart disease in rural coastal Ecuador: an issue of high mortality rate?” Rural Remote Health, vol. 14, p. 2623, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  37. E. Selvin and T. P. Erlinger, “Prevalence of and risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 738–743, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Garofolo, N. Barros Jr., F. Miranda Jr., V. D'Almeida, L. C. Cardien, and S. R. Ferreira, “Association of increased levels of homocysteine and peripheral arterial disease in a Japanese-Brazilian population,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. V. Buitrón-Granados, C. Martínez-López, and J. Escobedo-de la Peña, “Prevalence of Peripheral arterial disease and related risk factors in an urban Mexican population,” Angiology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2004. View at Google Scholar