Table of Contents
International Journal of Vehicular Technology
Volume 2014, Article ID 829097, 9 pages
Research Article

Traction Control of Electric Vehicles Using Sliding-Mode Controller with Tractive Force Observer

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800, Thailand

Received 24 June 2014; Revised 26 November 2014; Accepted 1 December 2014; Published 21 December 2014

Academic Editor: Nicolas Hautière

Copyright © 2014 Suwat Kuntanapreeda. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Traction control is an important element in modern vehicles to enhance drive efficiency, safety, and stability. Traction is produced by friction between tire and road, which is a nonlinear function of wheel slip. In this paper, a sliding-mode control approach is used to design a robust traction controller. The control objective is to operate vehicles such that a desired wheel slip ratio is achieved. A nonlinearity observer is employed to estimate tire tractive forces, which are used in the control law. Simulation and experimental results have illustrated the success of the proposed observer-based controller.