International Journal of Zoology / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Leadership of Winter Mixed-Species Flocks by Tufted Titmice (Baeolophus bicolor): Are Titmice Passive Nuclear Species?

Table 1

All species encountered in mixed-species flocks during the study (classified into flock roles (nuclear, satellite, or nonflocking) based on Farley et al. [4]). Percentage of flocks is the percentage of the 20 flocks where the species was encountered at a minimum of one observation point. Max. number of individuals is the estimated maximum number of individuals in a flock observed at one time.

Common nameScientific name% of flocks/max. # of individuals

Tufted titmouseBaeolophus bicolor100/6

 Black-and-white warblerMniotilta varia50/2
 Blue-gray gnatcatcherPolioptila caerulea70/6
 Blue-headed vireoVireo solitarius30/2
 Carolina chickadeePoecile carolinensis20/3
 Downy woodpeckerPicoides pubescens40/3
  (Yellow) palm warblerDendroica palmarum15/15
 Pine warblerDendroica pinus35/2
 Red-bellied woodpeckerMelanerpes carolinus30/3
 Ruby-crowned kingletRegulus calendula95/15
 White-eyed vireoVireo griseus15/1
 Yellow-throated warblerDendroica dominica10/1

 Blue jayCyanocitta cristata5/3
 Eastern bluebirdSialia sialis5/2
 Yellow-rumped warblerDendroica coronata15/50+
 Northern parulaParula americana10/2
 White-throated sparrowZonotrchia albicollis5/20

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