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International Journal of Zoology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 564105, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/564105
Research Article

High Sequence Variations in Mitochondrial DNA Control Region among Worldwide Populations of Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus

1Institute of Fisheries Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
2Biologie du comportement-Ethologie et Psychologie Animale, Départment de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution, Institute de Zoologie, Université de Liège, 22 quai Van Beneden , 4020 Liège, Belgium
3Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Laboratoire Ecologie des Systèmes Marins Côtiers, UMR 5119, Université Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier, France
4Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan

Received 7 November 2013; Revised 29 January 2014; Accepted 11 February 2014; Published 2 April 2014

Academic Editor: Thomas Iliffe

Copyright © 2014 Brian Wade Jamandre et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The sequence and structure of the complete mtDNA control region (CR) of M. cephalus from African, Pacific, and Atlantic populations are presented in this study to assess its usefulness in phylogeographic studies of this species. The mtDNA CR sequence variations among M. cephalus populations largely exceeded intraspecific polymorphisms that are generally observed in other vertebrates. The length of CR sequence varied among M. cephalus populations due to the presence of indels and variable number of tandem repeats at the hypervariable domain. The high evolutionary rate of the CR in this species probably originated from these mutations. However, no excessive homoplasic mutations were noticed. Finally, the star shaped tree inferred from the CR polymorphism stresses a rapid radiation worldwide, in this species. The CR still appears as a good marker for phylogeographic investigations and additional worldwide samples are warranted to further investigate the genetic structure and evolution in M. cephalus.