Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Zoology
Volume 2016, Article ID 5806472, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5806472
Research Article

Feeding Ecology of Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) Populations during the Rainy and Dry Seasons in Central Peru

1Laboratorio de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima 12, Peru
2Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad (CORBIDI), Calle Santa Rita 105, Oficina 2, Urbanización Huertos de San Antonio, Lima 33, Peru

Received 6 October 2015; Revised 19 January 2016; Accepted 20 January 2016

Academic Editor: Eugene S. Morton

Copyright © 2016 Carla Gazzolo and Javier Barrio. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Barrio, “Hippocamelus antisenis,” Mammalian Species, vol. 45, no. 901, pp. 49–59, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  2. H. Jungius, “Beobachtungen am weißwedelhirsch und an anderen cerviden in Bolivien,” Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, vol. 39, pp. 373–383, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. Thornback and M. Jenkins, The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened Mammalian Taxa of the Americas and the Australasian Zoogeographic Region (Excluding Cetacea), IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 1982.
  4. J. Merkt, “Reproductive seasonality and grouping patterns of the north Andean deer or taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) in southern Peru,” in Biology and Management of the Cervidae, C. Wemmer, Ed., pp. 388–401, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  5. W. Sielfeld, C. Carrasco, G. González, J. Torres, A. Carevic, and I. Lanino, “Estudio de la taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) en Chile,” Proyecto CONAF/PNUD/FAO-CHI/83/017, Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique, Chile, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. Barrio, “Población y hábitat de la taruka en la Zona Reservada Aymara-Lupaca, Perú,” in Manejo y Conservación de Fauna Silvestre en América Latina, T. Fang, O. Montenegro, and R. Bodmer, Eds., pp. 453–460, Editorial Instituto de Ecología, La Paz, Bolivia, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  7. J. Barrio, “Possible cattle influence on the population of two deer species at the highlands of Rio Abiseo National Park, Peru,” IUCN Deer Specialist Group News, vol. 19, pp. 6–9, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  8. MINAGR (Ministerio de Agricultura), “Aprueban categorización de especies amenazadas de fauna silvestre y prohíben su caza, captura, tenencia, transporte o exportación con fines comerciales El Peruano, Normas Legales. 22 de setiembre del 2004,” Decreto Supremo 034-2004-AG, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Barrio and N. Ferreyra, “Hippocamelus antisensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,” Version 2014.3, 2008, http://www.iucnredlist.org/.
  10. Asociación Peruana para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (APECO), Evaluación Preliminar del Estado de la Población de Tarucas Hippocamelus antisensis en el Parque Nacional del Río Abiseo (PNRA) y de sus Requerimientos de Conservación, APECO, Cooperación Técnica Holandesa—Embajada de los Países Bajos, Miraflores, Perú, 1996.
  11. N. Roe and W. Rees, “Preliminary observations of the taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis: Cervidae) in southern Peru,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 722–730, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C. Gazzolo, “Botanical composition of taruka (Hippocamelus antisensis) diet during the rainy season in Huascaran National Park, Peru,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Deer Biology Congress, L. Bartoš, A. Dušek, R. Kotrba, and J. Bartošova-Víchová, Eds., p. 216, Prague, Czech Republic, 2006.
  13. R. G. Anthony and N. S. Smith, “Comparison of rumen and fecal analysis to describe deer diets,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 535–540, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. J. L. Holechek, M. Vavra, and R. D. Pieper, “Botanical composition determination of range herbivore diets: a review,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 309–315, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Sparks and J. Malechek, “Estimating percentage dry weight in diets using a microscopic technique,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 264–265, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. L. Holechek, “Sample preparation techniques for microhistological analysis,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 267–268, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. J. L. Holechek and R. Valdez, “Magnification and shrub stemmy material influences on fecal analysis accuracy,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 350–352, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. E. J. Stevens, S. J. Stevens, R. N. Gates, K. M. Eskridge, and S. S. Waller, “Procedure for fecal cuticle analysis of herbivore diets,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 187–189, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. R. B. Gill, L. H. Carpenter, R. M. Bartmann, D. L. Baker, and G. G. Schoonveld, “Fecal analysis to estimate mule deer diets,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 902–915, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. Schaller, Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1998.
  21. J. L. Holechek and B. Gross, “Training needed for quantifying simulated diets from fragmented range plants,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 644–647, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Monge, “Descripción de las características epidérmicas de gramíneas del centro-este de Mendoza (Ñacuñán, Santa Rosa),” Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, vol. 9, pp. 57–68, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Sanders, B. Dahl, and G. Scout, “Bite-count vs. fecal analysis for range animal diets,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 146–149, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Cronquist, An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1981.
  25. R. J. Putman, “Facts from faeces,” Mammal Review, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 79–97, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. J. W. Todd and R. M. Hansen, “Plant fragments in the feces of bighorns as indicators of food habits,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 363–366, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Cosse, Dieta y solapamiento de la población de venado de campo (Ozotoceros bezoartticus, 1758) (Artiodactyla : Cervidae) [Tesis de Maestría en Biología, Opción Zoología], Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (PEDECIBA). Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2001.
  28. O. B. Williams, “An improved technique for identification of plant fragments in herbivore feces,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 51–52, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. M. Vavra and J. L. Holechek, “Factors influencing microhistological analysis of herbivore diets,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 371–374, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. M. J. B. Green, “Diet composition and quality in Himalayan musk deer based on fecal analysis,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 880–892, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Buckland, D. Anderson, K. Burnham, and J. Laake, Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1993.
  32. M. L. McInnis, M. Vavra, and W. C. Krueger, “A comparison of four methods used to determine the diets of large herbivores,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 302–306, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. M. L. Morrison, B. G. Marcot, and R. W. Mannan, Wildlife—Habitat Relationships: Concepts and Applications, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wis, USA, 1998.