Indoor Air
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 Journal metrics
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Acceptance rate25%
Submission to final decision104 days
Acceptance to publication20 days
CiteScore8.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.990
Impact Factor5.8

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Indoor Air is now an open access journal, and articles will be immediately available to read and reuse upon publication.

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 Journal profile

Indoor Air provides a forum to report research results in the broad area defined by the indoor environment of non-industrial buildings. 

 Editor spotlight

Indoor Air maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study. 

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

Latest Articles

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Research Article

Effects of Window Position and Exhaust Flow Rate on Residential Kitchen Hood Performance: A Validated Numerical Approach

Previous studies showed that opening windows could help with kitchen ventilation in pollutant removal. However, no studies have systematically examined the impacts of window positions on kitchen hood performance, and there is insufficient information on indoor airflow characteristics and pollutant distribution from makeup air through open windows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use a validated computational fluid dynamics approach with CO2 as an indoor air quality indicator (a surrogate for cooking emissions) to understand the impacts of exhaust flow rate and the window opening position on the flow characteristics, concentration distribution, and capture efficiency (CE) of the hood. We conducted four-point validation tests of the numerical models based on CO2 concentration and temperature measurements under steady-state conditions. The validated models were subsequently used in simulations to understand the effects of six different window opening positions and the two exhaust flow rates on exposure. We found that the CO2 concentration could be better reduced by having windows open at the higher location. Generally, the front windows were more effective with , followed by the back and the side windows, respectively. We also found that as the exhaust flow rate increased from 6.72 to 12.16 m3/min, CE reached >75% for all window positions, where the most significant increase was 1.58 times for the lower side window. To sum up, changing the relative position of the window and the exhaust hood could help disperse the incoming airflow from the window, improve the kitchen’s overall ventilation, and reduce pollutant concentration.

Research Article

Indoor Air Remediation Using Biochar from Bark: Impact of Particle Size and Pollutant Concentration

The growing emphasis on indoor air quality and public health is fuelling the need for efficient yet affordable air purification techniques. In this study, the influence of biochar particle size on its adsorption efficiency toward airborne pollutants was examined. Bark-derived biochar particles were treated by grinding or ball milling, and then, seven samples with different particle size groups were separated. Biochar particles were characterized by particle size, proximate, SEM, XRD, and physisorption analyses. For adsorption efficiency, two different pollutants were tested at variable initial concentrations. The physical composition and XRD patterns of the biochar with different particle sizes were comparable. The ball-milled sample was an exception in that it had higher ash content and additional XRD peaks signifying contamination of the sample. The porosity of biochar was greater in smaller particles. Ball milling increased the specific surface area and total pore volume by 102% and 48%, respectively. Biochar with finer particle size exhibited the highest adsorption potential towards formaldehyde and methanol among other samples. It should be emphasized that simple mechanical grinding is preferred for reducing biochar size to avoid the risk of eventual contamination, greater energy consumption, and slower processing related to ball milling. When a low concentration of pollutant was tested (1 ppm formaldehyde), the effect of particle size on the adsorption efficiency was more noticeable. However, the effect of particle size was less dominant when higher concentrations of pollutants were tested. Smaller biochar particles (<100 μm) are more favourable for indoor air remediation given their superior adsorption efficiency of volatile organic compounds occurring at low concentrations in the buildings.

Research Article

Detection and High-Throughput Microbial Analysis of Particulate Matter in Houses and Downwind Areas of Duck Farms

Particulate matter (PM) and the microorganisms of duck houses may have negative impacts on animal and human health. During 2021-2022, PM2.5 and PM10 inside and outside the duck house were sampled with a built-in air sampler in Tai’an City, Shandong Province, and the diversity and abundance of microorganisms within the PM were analyzed by macrogenomic and absolute sequence analysis. The results showed that PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in the house and at downwind points exceeded the short-term (24 h) guideline of the global air quality guidelines (AQG). Macrogenome sequencing showed that the microbial composition of the PM2.5 samples was dominated by bacteria (exceed 85%); a total of 1316 bacterial genera and 110 fungal genera were identified in PM2.5 samples from duck house 1 in winter, which were much higher than the results of amplicon sequencing method reported before, and relatively high levels of the pathogenic bacteria (Coccidioides immitis, etc.) and the conditionally pathogenic bacterium (Rothia nasimurium) were identified at the species level. Absolute quantitative sequencing detected conditionally pathogenic bacteria and allergens at high levels in PM10 samples: Corynebacterium ( copies/g), Aerococcus ( copies/g), Alternaria ( copies/g), and Aspergillus ( copies/g). Moreover, Corynebacterium was the highest content of PM10 in summer and PM2.5 samples in winter, and its pathogenicity and potential threat should be noted. The diversity and relative abundance of microorganisms were similar in the duck house and at the downwind point. The results showed that the microorganisms in the house environment have a greater influence on the air environment around the downwind point and may pose a public health risk to the staff and the surrounding area.

Review Article

Impact of Indoor Air Quality and Multi-domain Factors on Human Productivity and Physiological Responses: A Comprehensive Review

Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) significantly impacts human health, well-being, and productivity. However, a comprehensive and in-depth review of the combined effects of IAQ and other multi-domain factors on human productivity is lacking. There has not been any prior review that encapsulates the impact of multi-domain factors on productivity and physiological responses of occupants. To address this gap, this review paper investigates and highlights the impact of IAQ and multi-domain factors (thermal, visual, and acoustic) on human productivity and occupant well-being in the built environment. The review explores various research methods, including evaluation of human productivity and creativity, data collection, and physiological signal analysis. We also examined the interactions between IAQ and multi-domain factors, as well as strategies for optimizing productivity through integrated building design and smart systems. The key findings from this review reveal that IAQ significantly impacts human productivity and occupant well-being, with interactions between IAQ and other IEQ factors further impacting these effects. Despite advances in the field, there are several limitations and gaps in the current research methods and study designs, including small sample sizes, limited and insufficient experimental design and control, reliance on laboratory or simulated environments, lack of follow-up and long-term data, and lack of robust performance metrics. The review proposes future research directions, including specific applications, and follow-up work to address these limitations and further advance the understanding of IAQ and multi-domain factors in the built environment. The implications of this review for policy and practice include the need for holistic and integrated approaches to IAQ and IEQ management, with a focus on creating healthy and productive indoor environments. This review emphasizes the importance of considering the complex interplay between IAQ and multi-domain factors, as well as the potentials of adopting smart control systems and sustainable design strategies to optimize productivity and occupant well-being in the built environment. By addressing these critical issues, we can enhance the overall quality of life for building occupants and contribute to a more sustainable future.

Research Article

One Year Weekly Size-Resolved Air Sampling of SARS-CoV-2 in Hospital Corridors and Relations to the Indoor Environment

Background. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 plays a prominent role in COVID-19 transmission. Numerous studies have sampled air from patient rooms, but airborne spread to other hospital areas such as corridors is less investigated. Methods. Size-fractionated aerosol particles were collected weekly, with 12 hours of sampling time daily, in corridors at two infectious disease wards in southern Sweden between March 2020 and May 2021. Samples were analysed with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Indoor temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration were monitored during the sampling period. Results. 20 of the 784 collected samples contained SARS-CoV-2 RNA, although in low concentrations. Positive air samples were found in sizes between 0.14 and 8.1 μm, but none >8.1 μm. 45% were found in submicron particles. No clear seasonal pattern was observed among the positive samples. There was no significant difference in the positivity rate of the samples between the two wards. Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 was only detected in 2.6% of the aerosol samples, which indicates that the spread of airborne virus from patient rooms to the corridor was limited.

Research Article

Existence of a Nonzero Worst-Case ACH for Short-Term Exposure in Ventilated Indoor Spaces

A well-ventilated room is essential to reduce the risk of airborne transmission. As such, the scientific community sets minimum limits on ventilation with the idea that increased ventilation reduces pathogen concentration and thus reduces the risk of transmission. In contrast, the upper limit on ventilation is usually determined by human comfort and the need to reduce energy consumption. While average pathogen concentration decreases with increased ventilation, local concentration depends on multiple factors and may not follow the same trend, especially within short exposure times over large separation distances. Here, we show through experiments and high-fidelity simulations the existence of a worst-case ventilation where local pathogen concentration increases near the receiving host. This occurs during the type of meetings that were recommended during the pandemic (and in some cases solely authorized) with reduced occupancy adhering to social distancing and short exposure times below 20 minutes. We maintain that for cases of high occupancy and long exposure time, increased ventilation remains necessary.

Indoor Air
Publishing Collaboration
More info
Wiley Hindawi logo
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate25%
Submission to final decision104 days
Acceptance to publication20 days
CiteScore8.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.990
Impact Factor5.8
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Article of the Year Award: Impactful research contributions of 2022, as selected by our Chief Editors. Discover the winning articles.