Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases / 2008 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Probiotic Bacteria Influence the Composition and Function of the Intestinal Microbiota

Figure 1

Schematic diagram illustrating potential or known mechanisms whereby probiotic bacteria might impact on the microbiota. These mechanisms include (1) competition for dietary ingredients as growth substrates, (2) bioconversion of, for example, sugars into fermentation products with inhibitory properties, (3) production of growth substrates, for example, EPS or vitamins, for other bacteria, (4) direct antagonism by bacteriocins, (5) competitive exclusion for binding sites, (6) improved barrier function, (7) reduction of inflammation, thus altering intestinal properties for colonization and persistence within, and (8) stimulation of innate immune response (by unknown mechanisms). IEC: epithelial cells, DC: dendritic cells, T:T-cells. For further details, see main text.

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