Table 2: Worldwide distribution of principal sporadic cases and surveillance data reported in the last decade (1998–2008): case characteristics.

Samples (surveillance study or sporadic cases)CountryAge
(human cases)
Technique/genotyping toolSpecies/genotypes/subgenotypes1Reference

Human stoolsIndiaChildren18S rRNA, SSU, COWP, Cpgp40/15, TRAP-C1-based PCRC. hominis (Ia, Id, Ie, Ib), C. parvum (Ic), C. felis [36]

Environmental (water)China18S rRNA PCR-RFLP and sequence analyses; GP60C. hominis (IbA19G2, IbA20G2, and IbA21G2), Ia, Id, Ie (IeA12G3T3), If (IfA22G1) C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. parvum, C. suis, C. muris, rat genotype, avian genotype 3[41]

Human stoolsPerùChildrenGP60C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, Id), C. parvum (IIc), C. meleagridis, C. canis, C. felis [50]

Human stoolsIrelandAdults and children18S rRNA and COWP PCR-RFLP; GP60C. hominis (IbA10G2), C. parvum (IIaA18G3R1)[51]

Human stoolsBelgiumAdults and children70-kDa heat shock protein, 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60)C. hominis (IbA10G2, IbA9G3) C. parvum (IIaA15G2R1, IIcA5G3a, IIdA16G1 IIaA15G2R1)[62]

Human stoolsUKAdults and childrenCOWPand small sub-unit (SSU) rRNAgene PCR-RFLPC. parvum, C. hominis, C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. canis, Cryptosporidium cervine, horse, skunk genotypes[63]

Human stoolsHaitiAdults and children18S rRNAPCR-RFLPC. hominis, C. parvum, C. felis [69]

Human stoolsPerùAdults GP60C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id, Ie) C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, C. meleagridis [74]

Human and animal stoolsPortugalAdults and childrenGP60C. hominis (Ib, If), C. parvum (IIa, IIb, IIc and IId)[78]

Environmental (water)FranceIMS-IFA2, 18S rRNA PCR-RFLPC. hominis, C. parvum [96]

Animal stoolsIrelandNeonatal calvesGP60C. parvum (IIaA18G3R1), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype[101]

Environmental (water)PortugalIMS-IFA1, PCRC. hominis (IdA15) C. parvum (IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, IIdA17G1)[103]

Animal and human stoolsPortugalAdults and childrenGP60 C. hominis, C. parvum, C. felis, C. meleagridis [104]

Human stoolsMI (USA)Adults and children18S rRNA and COWPPCR-RFLP; GP60C. hominis, C. parvum (cervine genotype, cervine genotype variant, human genotype W17)[148]

Animal and human stoolsIranChildren and one adult18S rRNA PCR-RFLPC. parvum, C. hominis (anthroponotic and zoonotic genotype)[164]

Animal stoolsChinaNeonatal calves70-kDa heat shock protein; 18S rRNA, actin-based PCRC. andersoni, C. ryanae [165]

Animal stoolsIndiaNeonatal calves18S rRNA PCR-RFLPC. parvum, C. hominis [206]

Human stoolsUKAdults and childrenSSCP-based analysis of the 18S rRNA SSU and ITS-2 spacerC. parvum (types 1 and 2)[208]

Human stoolsUKAdultsGP60C. hominis (IbA10G2)[209]

Human stoolsKenya, Malawi, Brazil, Vietnam, UKAdults and children18S rRNA PCR-RFLPC. parvum (human genotype), C. parvum (bovine genotype), C. meleagridis, C. muris [222]

Human stoolsSwitzerland, Kenya, USAAdults and children18S rRNA; HSP-70; acetyl coenzyme A synthetaseC. parvum (“human” genotype, “cattle” genotype), C. felis, C. meleagridis [223]

Human stoolsSpainAdults and children18S rRNA-, COWP-based PCR-RFLPC. hominis, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. felis [224]

Human stoolsEquatorial GuineaAdults and childrenCOWP-based PCR-RFLPC. parvum, C. hominis, C. meleagridis [232]

Human and animal stoolsThailandAdults18S rRNA PCRC. parvum [239]

Human stoolsPerùAdults and children18S rRNA-based PCR-RFLPC. hominis, C. meleagridis, C. parvum, C. canis, C. felis, Cryptosporidium (pig genotype)[240]

Human stoolsPolandAdults and childrenCOWP and -tubulin-based PCRC. hominis, C. parvum, C. meleagridis,[254]

Human stoolsMadagascarChildrenGP60C. hominis (Ia, Id, Ie), C. parvum (IIc)[275]

1When available, reported subgenotypes are the most common detected.
2IMS-IFA, immunomagnetic separation followed by immunofluorescence assay: Method 1623 of the USA Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).