Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Volume 2012, Article ID 502012, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/502012
Clinical Study

Natural History and Factors Associated with Early and Delayed Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients Treated of Tuberculosis under Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Strategy: A Prospective Cohort Study in India

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bathalapalli Rural Development Trust Hospital, Kadiri Road, Anantapur District Bathalapalli, Andhra Pradesh 515661, India

Received 31 May 2012; Revised 27 November 2012; Accepted 27 November 2012

Academic Editor: Massimiliano Lanzafame

Copyright © 2012 Gerardo Alvarez-Uria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, Global Tuberculosis Control, 2011.
  2. WHO, UNICEF, and UNAIDS, Progress Report 2011: Global HIV/AIDS Response, 2011.
  3. C. K. Kwan and J. D. Ernst, “HIV and tuberculosis: a deadly human syndemic,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 351–376, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. Schutz, G. Meintjes, F. Almajid, R. J. Wilkinson, and A. Pozniak, “Clinical management of tuberculosis and HIV-1 co-infection,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1460–1481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. WHO, Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines For National Programmes, 3rd edition, 2003, WHO/CDS/TB/2003.313.
  6. P. Tiwari, M. Soneja, and S. K. Sharma, “Tuberculosis management—time for paradigm shift?” Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, vol. 58, pp. 97–101, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  7. S. Tripathy, A. Anand, V. Inamdar et al., “Clinical response of newly diagnosed HIV seropositive & seronegative pulmonary tuberculosis patients with the RNTCP short course regimen in Pune, India,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 521–528, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Swaminathan, G. Narendran, P. Venkatesan et al., “Efficacy of a 6-month versus 9-month intermittent treatment regimen in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis: a randomized clinical trial,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 181, no. 7, pp. 743–751, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. UNAIDS/WHO, Country Progress Report, UNGASS, 2010.
  10. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, and P. K. Naik, “Trends and risk factors for HIV infection among young pregnant women in rural India,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. e121–e123, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, R. Pakam, and P. K. Naik, “Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India,” Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 4, no. 1, p. e19, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. L. Tarantino, A. Giorgio, G. de Stefano, N. Farella, A. Perrotta, and F. Esposito, “Disseminated mycobacterial infection in AIDS patients: abdominal US features and value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes and spleen,” Abdominal Imaging, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 602–608, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. K. Sharma, D. Smith-Rohrberg, M. Tahir, A. Mohan, and A. Seith, “Radiological manifestations of splenic tuberculosis: a 23-patient case series from India,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 669–678, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. WHO, Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines for National Programmes, 4th edition, 2010.
  15. WHO, Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents, 2006.
  16. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare India, Technical and Operational Guideline for Tuberculosis Control, 2005.
  17. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, and P. K. Naik, “Socio-demographic risk factors associated with HIV infection in patients seeking medical advice in a rural hospital of India,” Journal of Public Health Research, vol. 1, no. 1, p. e14, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Schonlau, “Boosted regression (boosting): an introductory tutorial and a Stata plugin,” Stata Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 330–354, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. G. Kleinbaum and M. Klein, Survival Analysis, a Self-Learning Text, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2005.
  20. F. E. Harrell, R. M. Califf, D. B. Pryor, K. L. Lee, and R. A. Rosati, “Evaluating the yield of medical tests,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 247, pp. 2543–2546, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  21. D. G. Kleinbaum, M. Klein, and E. R. Pryor, Logistic Regression: A Self-learning Text, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  22. M. Sanchez, P. Bartholomay, D. Arakaki-Sanchez et al., “Outcomes of TB treatment by HIV status in national recording systems in Brazil, 2003–2008,” PLoS One, vol. 7, Article ID e33129, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. T. T. Thuy, N. S. Shah, M. H. Anh et al., “HIV-associated TB in an giang province, Vietnam, 2001–2004: epidemiology and TB treatment outcomes,” PloS One, vol. 2, no. 6, p. e507, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. D. Mukadi, D. Maher, and A. Harries, “Tuberculosis case fatality rates in high HIV prevalence populations in sub-Saharan Africa,” AIDS, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 143–152, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Straetemans, A. L. Bierrenbach, N. Nagelkerke, P. Glaziou, and M. J. van der Werf, “The effect of tuberculosis on mortality in HIV positive people: a meta-analysis,” PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 12, Article ID e15241, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. G. Gopi, M. Vasantha, M. Muniyandi, V. Chandrasekaran, R. Balasubramanian, and P. R. Narayanan, “Risk factors for non-adherence to directly observed treatment (DOT) in a rural tuberculosis unit, South India,” The Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 66–70, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. U. M. Jha, S. Satyanarayana, P. K. Dewan et al., “Risk factors for treatment default among re-treatment tuberculosis patients in India, 2006,” PLoS One, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID e8873, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Dasgupta and I. Ghanashyam, “Connecting the DOTS: spectre of a public health iatrogenesis?” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 13–15, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. F. A. Khan, J. Minion, M. Pai et al., “Treatment of active tuberculosis in HIV-coinfected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 1288–1299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Alvarez-Uria, M. Midde, R. Pakam, S. Kannan, L. Bachu, and P. K. Naik, “Factors associated with late presentation of HIV and estimation of antiretroviral treatment need according to CD4 lymphocyte count in a resource-limited setting: data from an HIV cohort study in India,” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, vol. 2012, Article ID 293795, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. K. Mojumdar, M. Vajpayee, N. K. Chauhan, and S. Mendiratta, “Late presenters to HIV care and treatment, identification of associated risk factors in HIV-1 infected Indian population,” BMC Public Health, vol. 10, article 416, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. J. Waitt and S. B. Squire, “A systematic review of risk factors for death in adults during and after tuberculosis treatment,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 871–885, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Santha, R. Garg, T. R. Frieden et al., “Risk factors associated with default, failure and death among tuberculosis patients treated in a DOTS programme in Tiruvallur District, South India, 2000,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 780–788, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. P. Koenig, C. Riviere, P. Leger et al., “High mortality among patients with AIDS who received a diagnosis of tuberculosis in the first 3 months of antiretroviral therapy,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 829–831, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Alvarez-Uria, J. M. Azcona, M. Midde, P. K. Naik, S. Reddy, and R. Reddy, “Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Comparison of LED fluorescent microscopy and the geneXpert MTB/RIF assay in a district hospital in India,” Tuberculosis Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 932862, 4 pages, 2012. View at Google Scholar