Table of Contents
ISRN Vascular Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 678137, 11 pages
Review Article

Intracoronary Imaging and Histopathology of Late Phase In-Stent Restenosis after Coronary Stent Implantation

1Division of Cardiology, Nagoya City East Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8547, Japan
21-2-23 Wakamizu, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8547, Japan

Received 4 October 2012; Accepted 20 October 2012

Academic Editors: D. Guidolin and C.-C. Wu

Copyright © 2012 Shigenori Ito et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the field of coronary artery stenting, restenosis issue has been almost resolved after development of drug-eluting stents (DESs). In-stent restenosis (ISR) is generally considered to be a stable process, with an early peak in intimal hyperplasia followed by a quiescent period beginning 1 year after stent implantation. However, recently, extended-term problem (over 1 year) in both bare-metal stents (BMSs) and DES has been reported. This phenomenon seems to be different from early ISR within one year in terms of its mechanism, prevention, and treatment. In this paper, we discuss this topic from the standpoint of intracoronary imagings and histopathology, referencing several interesting cases we experienced.