Table 8: Standards for evaluating range of motion of adults’ joints.

MovementMaximal ROM

Shoulder elevation through flexion180°
Elbow extension190°–195°1
Elbow pronation-supination170°2
Wrist flexion80°
Wrist extension70°
Wrist ulnar deviation30°
Wrist radial deviation20°
2nd finger MCP joint extension45°
PIP and DIP joint extension
Hip abduction with leg extended45°
Hip adduction with leg extended30°
Knee extension180°–190°1
Ankle dorsiflexion20°
Ankle plantar flexion50°
1st toe MTP joint extension70°
Mandible depression35–50 mm
Mandible protrusion3–7 mm
Mandible lateral deviation10–15 mm
Neck rotation 11 cm3
Neck flexion45°
Neck extension45°
Neck lateral flexion45°
Thoracolumbar spine lateral flexion35°

1The lower and the upper end fits better for men and women, respectively.
280° in supination and 90° in pronation from mid-position.
3From the tip of the chin to the lateral aspect of the acromion process.
DIP: distal interphalangeal, MCP: metacarpophalangeal, MTP: metatarsophalangeal, PIP: proximal interphalangeal, ROM: range of motion.