138319.fig.007
Figure 7: Cave bear bones of the small cave bears from the Bears’ Passage of the Sophie’s Cave (southern Germany) that have been chewed, bitten, and cracked by large predators (lions, hyenas, and wolves). 1–10 were from the Bear’s Passage and 11 was from the Reindeer Hall (cf. Figure 1(e)). (1) Anterior thoracic vertebral column from a skeleton, with chewed dorsal spines and canine impact marks from a large predator (lion or hyena) on the sides of the ventral centre: (a) lateral, (b) ventral. (2) Distal thoracic to last lumbar vertebra from a single skeleton, with large scratch marks and round to oval canine impact marks from a large predator (lion or hyena), as a result of feeding on intestines and filet meat; (a) lateral, (b) ventral, (c) detail view of 6 mm wide bite scratches. (3) First three thoracic vertebrae from a single individual, with chewed dorsal spines and evidence of arthritis in the middle vertebra. (4) T14/L1 vertebrae from a single individual, with deep bite scratch marks from a large predator (lion or hyena): (a) lateral, (b) ventral. (5) Anterior thoracic vertebra with bite marks from a large predator (lion or hyena), (a) ventral, (b) lateral right, (c) lateral left. (6) Vertebra disc from a young individual, with several round to oval bite marks from a large predator (lion or hyena): cranial. (7) Sternal bone, half eaten: lateral. (8) First costa with chewed joints: lateral. (9) Costa, distally chewed: inner view. (10) Costa, distally chewed: inner view. (11) Costa, chewed at both ends: (a) inner view, (b) outer view with bite mark details (All from coll. Museum Castle Rabenstein).