Table of Contents
ISRN Machine Vision
Volume 2013, Article ID 429347, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/429347
Research Article

Towards Understanding the Formation of Uniform Local Binary Patterns

Business and Innovation Development BID Technology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland

Received 29 May 2013; Accepted 30 June 2013

Academic Editors: O. Ghita and N. A. Schmid

Copyright © 2013 Olli Lahdenoja et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Pietikainen, A. Hadid, G. Zhao, and T. Ahonen, Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2011.
  2. N. Chatlani and J. J. Soraghan, “Local Binary patterns for 1D signal processing,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Signal Processing Conference, pp. 95–99, Aalborg, Denmark, 2010.
  3. http://www.cse.oulu.fi/CMV/LBP_Bibliography/.
  4. L. Hepplewhite and T. J. Stonham, “Texture classification using N-tuple pattern recognition,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR '96), vol. 4, pp. 159–163, Vienna, Austria, 1996.
  5. L. Wang and D.-C. He, “Texture classification using texture spectrum,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 905–910, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Hepplewhite and T. J. Stonham, “N-tuple texture recognition and the zero crossing sketch,” Electronics Letters, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 45–46, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Zhang, S. Shan, W. Gao, X. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Local Gabor Binary Pattern Histogram Sequence (LGBPHS): a novel non-statistical model for face representation and recognition,” in Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV '05), vol. 1, pp. 786–791, October 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Bianconi and A. Fernández, “On the occurrence probability of local binary patterns: a theoretical study,” Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 259–268, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Ahonen, A. Hadid, and M. Pietikäinen, “Face description with local binary patterns: application to face recognition,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2037–2041, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 971–987, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Shan and T. Gritti, “Learning discriminative LBP-histogram bins for facial expression recognition,” in Proceedings of British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC '08), Leeds, UK, 2008.
  12. T. Ahonen, J. Matas, C. He, and M. Pietikäinen, “Rotation invariant image description with local binary pattern histogram fourier features,” in Proceedings of Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis (SCIA '09), vol. 5575 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 61–70, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Fernández, O. Ghita, E. González, F. Bianconi, and P. F. Whelan, “Evaluation of robustness against rotation of LBP, CCR and ILBP features in granite texture classification,” Machine Vision and Applications, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 913–926, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Zhao, T. Ahonen, J. Matas, and M. Pietikäinen, “Rotation-invariant image and video description with local binary pattern features,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1465–1477, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Maenpaa, T. Ojala, and M. Pietikainen, “Robust texture classification by subsets of Local Binary Patterns,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 3, pp. 947–950, Barcelona, Spain, 2000.
  16. I. Guyon and A. Elisseeff, “An introduction to variable and feature selection,” Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 3, pp. 1157–1182, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. Zabih and J. Woodfill, “Non-parametric local transforms for computing visual correspondence,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 151–158, Stockholm, Sweden, 1994.
  18. Z. Wang, B. Fan, and F. Wu, “Local intensity order pattern for feature description,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV '11), pp. 603–610, November 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Fan, F. Wu, and Z. Hu, “Rotationally invariant descriptors using intensity order pooling,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2031–2045, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. T. Ahonen and M. Pietikäinen, “Image description using joint distribution of filter bank responses,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 368–376, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. O. Lahdenoja, “A statistical approach for characterizing local binary patterns,” TUCS Technical Report 795, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  22. O. Lahdenoja, M. Laiho, and A. Paasio, “Reducing the feature vector length in local binary pattern based face recognition,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '05), pp. 914–917, Genova, Italy, September 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. D. Gibbons, Nonparametric Statistical Inference, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
  24. T. Ojala, T. Maenpaa, M. Pietikainen et al., “Outex—new framework for empirical evaluation of texture analysis algorithms,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 701–706, 2002.
  25. P. J. Phillips, H. Wechsler, J. Huang, and P. J. Rauss, “The FERET database and evaluation procedure for face-recognition algorithms,” Image and Vision Computing, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 295–306, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. H. Chan, B. Goswami, J. Kittler, and W. Christmas, “Local ordinal contrast pattern histograms for spatiotemporal, lip-based speaker authentication,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 602–612, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus