Table of Contents
Journal of Allergy
Volume 2012, Article ID 423612, 10 pages
Research Article

Substance P Regulates Environmental Tobacco Smoke-Enhanced Tracheal Smooth Muscle Responsiveness in Mice

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 9128, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA

Received 16 April 2012; Revised 5 June 2012; Accepted 4 July 2012

Academic Editor: Ynuk Bossé

Copyright © 2012 Lan Xiao and Zhong-Xin Wu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an environmental trigger that leads to airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in susceptible individuals and animals, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Substance P (SP) release from sensory nerve fibers has been linked to AHR. The present experiments characterize the role of SP in tracheal smooth muscle on ETS-increased airway responses. The mice were exposed to either sidestream tobacco smoke (SS), a surrogate to ETS, or filtered air (FA) for 1 day or 5 consecutive days. Contractions of tracheal smooth muscle to SP and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were not significantly altered in 1 of day SS-exposed mice. However, 5 of days SS exposure significantly increased airway smooth muscle contractions to SP and EFS. Administration of CP-99994, an antagonist of the neurokinin (NK)1 receptor, attenuates the SS exposure-enhanced tracheal smooth muscle responses to EFS. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry showed that SP nerve fibers were increased in tracheal smooth muscle after 5 of days SS exposure. These results suggest that the increased SP production may contribute to SS-enhanced smooth muscle responsiveness in mice trachea.