Mobile Phones: Vital Addiction or Lethal Addiction? Mobile Phone Usage Patterns and Assessment of Mobile Addiction among Undergraduate Medical Students in Telangana, IndiaRead the full article
Journal of Addiction publishes original research articles and review articles related to all aspects of addiction.
Journal of Addiction maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Risky Alcohol Use and Comorbidity in a Swedish Adolescent Emergency Psychiatric Inpatient Population
Introduction. Underage drinking is associated with poor mental health. Early detection for risky alcohol use is recommended, although less implemented in adolescent care. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of risky alcohol use and psychiatric comorbidity. Methods. Over a nine-month period, 145 eligible adolescents admitted to the child and adolescent emergency unit in Malmö, Sweden, were offered computerized screening with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Results. Ninety-six patients (73 girls and 23 boys) agreed to participate. The most common diagnoses were affective disorder (41%) and anxiety disorder (27%). Risky alcohol use was found among 33% of the girls and 22% of the boys () and did not differ between diagnostic categories. There was a positive correlation between AUDIT-C and DUDIT scores (). Among adolescents with risky alcohol use, 33% of the girls and 60% of the boys also had a risky drug use. Conversely, 47% of the girls and 60% of the boys with risky drug use also had a risky alcohol use. Conclusion. In view of the poor prognosis of risky alcohol use in adolescents, alcohol and drug habits should be assessed when adolescents seek psychiatric emergency care.
High Frequency and Low Intensity Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Smoking Cessation
Introduction. Tobacco consumption is one of the main causes of mortality in the world. Because of its effect on health, smoking cessation should be prioritized as an important health intervention; however, current interventions have shown low success rates as only 31% of the cases can stop smoking. In this paper, an intervention with high frequency and low intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (HFLI TMS) was applied to determine if this type of neuromodulation could have an effect in decreasing tobacco addiction. Methods. Retrospective data from ten ambulatory smoker patients that underwent 24 sessions of HFLI TMS over 8 weeks were retrieved and are here presented. Results. Exhaled CO concentrations were statistically significantly different from baseline at the weeks 3, 5, 6, and 8. After the 24 sessions, all patients stopped smoking; this was confirmed directly by exhaled carbon monoxide and the smoking diary. Three months after intervention, eight out of ten subjects continued without smoking. No severe adverse effects were reported by participants. Conclusions. Overall, employing HFLI TMS appears to have acceptable result; however, further evidence is needed to determine with more certainty its therapeutic effect and adverse effects for addiction intervention.
Brief Negative Affect Focused Functional Imagery Training Abolishes Stress-Induced Alcohol Choice in Hazardous Student Drinkers
Introduction. Imagery-based stress management therapies are effective at reducing alcohol use. To explore the therapeutic mechanism, the current study tested whether brief functional imagery training linked to personal negative affect drinking triggers would attenuate sensitivity to noise stress-induced alcohol seeking behaviour in a laboratory model. Methods. Participants were UK-based hazardous student drinkers (N = 61, 80.3% women, aged 18–25) who reported drinking to cope with negative affect. Participants in the active intervention group (n = 31) were briefly trained to respond to personal negative drinking triggers by retrieving an adaptive strategy to mitigate negative affect, whereas participants in the control group (n = 30) received risk information about binge drinking at university. The relative value of alcohol was then measured by preference to view alcohol versus food pictures in two-alternative choice trials, before (baseline) and during noise stress induction. Results. There was a significant two-way interaction where the control group increased their alcohol picture choice from baseline to the noise stress test , whereas the active intervention group did not , and the control group chose alcohol more frequently than the active group in the stress test , but not at baseline . Conclusions. These findings indicate that imagery-based mood management can protect against the increase in the relative value of alcohol motivated by acute stress in hazardous negative affect drinkers, suggesting this mechanism could underpin the therapeutic effect of mood management on drinking outcomes.
Areca Nut Chewing: Initiation, Addiction, and Harmful Effects Emphasizing the Barriers and Importance of Cessation
Areca nut is a highly addictive substance with carcinogenic properties and causes many harmful effects to the human body. Alkaloids are the major chemicals found in areca nut, and their mechanism of action has been studied for several years. About 600 million people around the world use areca nut, and its usage is higher in Asian countries. Areca nut chewers get used to the habit mainly due to social influence, stress, or lack of awareness. Some studies have reported a dependence syndrome related to areca nut chewing. Even though there are many ongoing research studies regarding tobacco addiction, less concern has been given to the areca nut addiction. There are only few studies related to areca nut cessation, and even those few cessation programs are mainly designed using tobacco cessation methodology. Sociocultural influence, behavioral factors, and accessibility are the main barriers to cessation. Behavior changing interventions proved to be more effective in areca nut cessation, but recently studies on pharmacological therapies are also emerging.
Risky Alcohol Drinking Pattern and Its Association with Educational Attainment and Wealth Index among Adult Men Population in Ethiopia: Further Analysis of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey
Risky alcohol drinking is one of the major public health problems and an important health risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. Identifying the determinants of risky alcohol drinking patterns is crucial for developing and improving intervention on drinking behavior. In Ethiopia, the role of educational attainment and affluence in reducing risky alcohol drinking patterns among men remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the association of educational status and affluence with risky alcohol drinking patterns using national representative data in Ethiopia. Secondary data analysis was conducted on 12,688 adult men using data from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic Health Survey (EDHS). The dependent variable was a risky alcohol drinking pattern which is defined as the consumption of alcohol every day in the last 12 months before the interview. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to assess the association between educational attainment, Ethiopian standard wealth index, and risky alcohol drinking pattern, after adjusting for the potential confounders. The overall magnitude of risky alcohol drinking patterns among men in Ethiopia was 4.5% (95% CI: 3.4–5.9). Of the total men who had ever taken alcohol, 9.7% of men drink almost every day in the last 12 months. The odds of having a risky alcohol drinking pattern were lower among men who completed secondary education (AOR = 0.56 (0.329–0.961)) and men who completed higher education levels (AOR = 0.35 (0.164–0.765)) as compared to men who did not attend any formal education. Adult men in the top two wealth quintiles were twice more likely to have risky alcohol drinking patterns than those in the lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 2.13 (1.254–3.605)). This study showed that from the total adult male population, nearly 5% of Ethiopian men had risky drinking patterns. Individuals with low educational status and greater affluence engaged in high-risk alcohol consumption behavior.
Alcohol Use and Its Associated Factors among Adolescents Aged 15–19 Years at Governmental High Schools of Aksum Town, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction. The impact of alcohol use among adolescents is multidisciplinary and affects the adolescent’s academic performance, precipitates with sexually transmitted infections or psychiatric disorders, and disturbs the social domain of adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use among adolescents aged 15–19 years at the governmental high schools of Aksum Town, Tigray, Ethiopia, in 2019. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 30 January 2019 at Aksum town high school. Alcohol use was assessed by asking the question “have you used at least one of the alcoholic beverages in the last three months for nonmedical purposes?” Study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with face-to-face interview and were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to see the association between alcohol use and associated factors. Adjusted odds ratio at a value < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval was taken to declare the statistical significance of variables. Result. About 633 adolescents aged 15–19 years were addressed with a response rate of 99.7%. Prevalence of alcohol use was found to be 39.7% [95% CI (35.7, 43.6)]. Being male [AOR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.24, 2.60)], fathers’ educational status 1–8 grades [AOR = 2.98; 95% CI (1.60, 5.53)], fathers’ occupation farming [AOR = 4.24; 95% CI (2.038.85)], experienced parental neglect [AOR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.20, 2.55)], strong social support [AOR = 1.79; 95% CI (1.11, 2.87)], and family size of greater than five [AOR = 2.03; 95%CI (1.39, 2.97)] were factors identified to be significantly associated with alcohol use among adolescents aged 15–19 years. Conclusion. In the current study, the prevalence of alcohol use is found to be high when compared to other populations. A strong association has been found between alcohol use and lower paternal educational status and farming as an occupation of parents. There should be a regular awareness creation program for parents with lower education about the devastating effects of alcohol on adolescents.