Risky Alcohol Drinking Pattern and Its Association with Educational Attainment and Wealth Index among Adult Men Population in Ethiopia: Further Analysis of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health SurveyRead the full article
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Alcohol Use and Its Associated Factors among Adolescents Aged 15–19 Years at Governmental High Schools of Aksum Town, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction. The impact of alcohol use among adolescents is multidisciplinary and affects the adolescent’s academic performance, precipitates with sexually transmitted infections or psychiatric disorders, and disturbs the social domain of adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use among adolescents aged 15–19 years at the governmental high schools of Aksum Town, Tigray, Ethiopia, in 2019. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 30 January 2019 at Aksum town high school. Alcohol use was assessed by asking the question “have you used at least one of the alcoholic beverages in the last three months for nonmedical purposes?” Study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with face-to-face interview and were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to see the association between alcohol use and associated factors. Adjusted odds ratio at a value < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval was taken to declare the statistical significance of variables. Result. About 633 adolescents aged 15–19 years were addressed with a response rate of 99.7%. Prevalence of alcohol use was found to be 39.7% [95% CI (35.7, 43.6)]. Being male [AOR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.24, 2.60)], fathers’ educational status 1–8 grades [AOR = 2.98; 95% CI (1.60, 5.53)], fathers’ occupation farming [AOR = 4.24; 95% CI (2.038.85)], experienced parental neglect [AOR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.20, 2.55)], strong social support [AOR = 1.79; 95% CI (1.11, 2.87)], and family size of greater than five [AOR = 2.03; 95%CI (1.39, 2.97)] were factors identified to be significantly associated with alcohol use among adolescents aged 15–19 years. Conclusion. In the current study, the prevalence of alcohol use is found to be high when compared to other populations. A strong association has been found between alcohol use and lower paternal educational status and farming as an occupation of parents. There should be a regular awareness creation program for parents with lower education about the devastating effects of alcohol on adolescents.
Sociodemographic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse in Kassena-Nankana Municipality, Ghana
The main aim of the study was to assess the level of alcohol abuse and related factors in Kassena-Nankana Municipal of Ghana. The study was conducted using a cross-sectional survey with 397 participants, using AUDIT to assess alcohol use. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS. Bivariate analysis was done using chi-square and multivariate analysis was done using the multinomial logistics regression model. Lifetime alcohol use among the study participants was 96.0%; out of this, 51.7% were engaged in possibly dependent drinking, 23.4% involved in harmful drinking, and 24.9% involved in moderate drinking. Males were more likely to engage in harmful drinking than moderate (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.175–4.776). Males again were more likely to engage in dependent drinking than moderate (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.489–5.068). Christians as compared to traditionalists were less likely engage in dependent drinking than moderate drinking (AOR = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.223–0.940). Those with tertiary education were less likely to engage in dependent drinking than moderate as compare to those without formal education (AOR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.076–0.670). Also employed civil servants were more likely to engage in dependent drinking than moderate as compared to those without employment (AOR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.187–16.646). This study revealed a high prevalence of alcohol abuse among the residents of Kassena-Nankana municipality that was predicted by gender, educational level, and religious practice; therefore, there is a need for a public campaign on the harmful effects of alcohol abuse in the municipality.
Prevalence of Alcohol Use and Associated Factors among Dilla University Students, Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction. Globally, alcohol is one of the most prevalent forms of substance use that is particularly high among young age groups. Despite the adverse health and social challenges associated with alcohol use, it is one of the most common risky behaviours among university students. Objective. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among Dilla University students in Southern Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Dilla University among undergraduate regular students from January to February 2018. A systematic random sampling technique was used to get a total sample of 803 students each year from the department of the university. The collected data were coded, entered into Epi Info version 7.1, and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 803 participants were successfully interviewed with a response rate of 91.7%. Alcohol use prevalence was 41.8% (n = 336) among participants. Being in fourth year (AOR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.64, 4.31), having friends who use the substance (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.1), being a khat user (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.09), and being a cigarette smoker (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.84) were found to be significantly associated with alcohol use. Conclusion. The current study revealed that fourth-year students, having friends who use the substance, being khat user, and being cigarette smoker had higher odds of alcohol use among the students. So the findings suggest that effective campus-based counselling and peer education should be implemented for early prevention, detection, and alleviation of alcohol use among students in the university.
Schizotypy but not Cannabis Use Modestly Predicts Psychotogenic Experiences: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE)
Objective. Cannabis use predicts psychosis in longitudinal studies, but it is difficult to infer causation. Some precursor variables predict both, including childhood trauma and adversity. Additionally, some of the desired effects of cannabis use resemble the symptoms of psychosis. It would be preferable to assess psychotomimetic or “unusual” experiences that include psychotic symptoms but without assuming pathology. Finally, it is possible that similar people are prone to psychosis and drawn to cannabis use, perhaps, because they are sensitive or attracted to unusual experiences. Schizotypy provides a trait measure of proneness to unusual experiences. The study aimed to examine cross-sectionally relationships between cannabis use, schizotypy, and unusual experiences whilst controlling for current trauma symptoms. Method. A volunteer online sample (n = 129, 64% women, predominantly students) who had used cannabis at least once was recruited. People who reported active effects of past trauma were excluded with a brief primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen. Participants completed the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experience, the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and measures of substance use and sociodemographics. Results. The majority of respondents recounted unusual experiences after cannabis use, and many of these might have been considered symptoms of psychosis if they had received medical attention. In regression analysis, the only predictor of the unusual experiences scale of O-LIFE was schizotypy (measured by the remaining subscales; 4% of variance). There were no correlations between cannabis use frequency and schizotypy or unusual experiences. Conclusions. These findings suggest that, after controlling for schizotypy and excluding people who are actively experiencing the effects of past trauma, frequency of cannabis use does not predict unusual experiences. However, individuals with schizotypal personality traits may have more unusual experiences when using cannabis.
Surveying the Effect of Opioid Abuse on the Extent of Coronary Artery Diseases in Diabetic Patients
Background. Diabetes mellitus is recognized as one of the most common, serious, and costly chronic diseases. Opium addiction is also a common health problem in Iran. Given the high prevalence of opium use in South Khorasan Province and the increasing prevalence of opioid abuse in the community, this study was performed to investigate the effect of opioid abuse on the extent of disease in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in the cardiology department of Vali-e-Asr Hospital in Birjand city, South Khorasan Province, Iran. Methods. This study recruited a total of 1051 diabetic patients who underwent coronary angiography in the cardiology department of Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Birjand city from 2011 to 2015. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 with the chi-square test and univariate regression analysis. value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results. Among opiate-addicted diabetics, the risk of coronary artery disease was 0.44 times higher than among nonaddicted diabetics (range 0.24–0.77, ). The extent of coronary vessel involvement, when present, was not different between the two groups. Conclusion. Opiate-addicted diabetics appear to be more susceptible to CAD than their nonaddicted counterparts. The determinants and correlates of this interaction must be the subject of further study.
Predictors of Alcohol Use in Safety-Net Primary Care: Classism, Religiosity, and Race
Class-based discrimination may impact problematic drinking in low-income populations, which may be buffered by personal religiosity. However, little is known how race may impact this association. The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in the effect of class-based discrimination on problematic drinking as moderated by comfort with God and determine if there were conditional direct effects of class-based discrimination on problematic drinking by race. In this cross-sectional study, participants (N = 189) were patients of an urban, safety-net primary care clinic who completed questionnaires assessing experiences of class-based discrimination, attitudes toward God, and alcohol use. Data were collected from 2015 to 2016 and analyzed using the Hayes PROCESS macro. There was a significant main effect for class-based discrimination predicting problematic drinking. Two-way interaction analyses identified a significant comfort with God by race interaction with greater comfort with God associated with less problematic drinking among white but not black respondents. Conditional direct effects showed that experiences of class-based discrimination were associated with problematic drinking at low and moderate but not high levels of comfort with God in black participants, whereas none were observed for white participants. This study provides insight on how personal religiosity, class-based discrimination, and race may intertwine to shape problematic alcohol use in primarily low-income, urban patients. Clinicians’ awareness of risk and protective factors, as well as how race tempers the effects of such factors, is vital in providing better care for this population.