Mathematical Modeling, Analysis, and Optimal Control of Corruption DynamicsRead the full article
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Optimal Health Insurance and Trade-Off between Health and Wealth
Health insurance is considered to be a special type of nonlife insurance with two important features. First, compared with property insurance, health insurance provides valuable hedge against unpredictable shocks to health status, instead of loss on property. Therefore, a modified utility function that describes the trade-off between health and wealth should be applied in optimal indemnity design. Second, in the case that the insured is severely or critically ill, with necessary medical treatment, the insured may not fully recover from an illness or an injury. The doctor usually communicates with the patient to set up a personalized treatment plan and explains clearly about the expected outcome beforehand. Hence, there is some probability that health insurance helps to rescue the insured from disastrous financial burden, but it still yields a lower utility of health. By taking these special features into account, we formulate the optimization problem and characterize the optimal solutions via the Lagrange multiplier method and optimal control technique. Finally, we examine our optimal contracts by numerical illustration. Our research work gives new insights into health insurance design.
Fuzzy Modeling for the Dynamics of Alcohol-Related Health Risks with Changing Behaviors via Cultural Beliefs
In this paper, we propose and analyze a fuzzy model for the health risk challenges associated with alcoholism. The fuzziness gets into the system by assuming uncertainty condition in the measure of influence of the risky individual and the additional death rate. Specifically, the fuzzy numbers are defined functions of the degree of peer influence of a susceptible individual into drinking behavior. The fuzzy basic risk reproduction number is computed by means of Next-Generation Matrix and analyzed. The analysis of reveals that health risk associated with alcoholism can be effectively controlled by raising the resistance of susceptible individuals and consequently reducing their chances of initiation of drinking behavior. When perceived respectable individuals in the communities are involved in health education campaign, the public awareness about prevailing risks increases rapidly. Consequently, a large population proportion will gain protection from initiation of drinks which would accelerate their health condition into more risky states. In a situation where peer influence is low, the health risks are likely to be reduced by natural factors that provide virtual protection from alcoholism. However, when the perceived most influential people in the community engage in alcoholism behavior, it implies an increase in the force of influence, and as such, the system will be endemic.
Solutions of Nonlinear Operator Equations by Viscosity Iterative Methods
Finding the solutions of nonlinear operator equations has been a subject of research for decades but has recently attracted much attention. This paper studies the convergence of a newly introduced viscosity implicit iterative algorithm to a fixed point of a nonexpansive mapping in Banach spaces. Our technique is indispensable in terms of explicitly clarifying the associated concepts and analysis. The scheme is effective for obtaining the solutions of various nonlinear operator equations as it involves the generalized contraction. The results are applied to obtain a fixed point of -strictly pseudocontractive mappings, solution of -inverse-strongly monotone mappings, and solution of integral equations of Fredholm type.
Computation of Invariant Measures and Stationary Expectations for Markov Chains with Block-Band Transition Matrix
This paper deals with the computation of invariant measures and stationary expectations for discrete-time Markov chains governed by a block-structured one-step transition probability matrix. The method generalizes in some respect Neuts’ matrix-geometric approach to vector-state Markov chains. The method reveals a strong relationship between Markov chains and matrix continued fractions which can provide valuable information for mastering the growing complexity of real-world applications of large-scale grid systems and multidimensional level-dependent Markov models. The results obtained are extended to continuous-time Markov chains.
A New Class of Halley’s Method with Third-Order Convergence for Solving Nonlinear Equations
In this paper, we present a new family of methods for finding simple roots of nonlinear equations. The convergence analysis shows that the order of convergence of all these methods is three. The originality of this family lies in the fact that these sequences are defined by an explicit expression which depends on a parameter where is a nonnegative integer. A first study on the global convergence of these methods is performed. The power of this family is illustrated analytically by justifying that, under certain conditions, the method convergence’s speed increases with the parameter . This family’s efficiency is tested on a number of numerical examples. It is observed that our new methods take less number of iterations than many other third-order methods. In comparison with the methods of the sixth and eighth order, the new ones behave similarly in the examples considered.
Lagrangians, Gauge Functions, and Lie Groups for Semigroup of Second-Order Differential Equations
A set of linear second-order differential equations is converted into a semigroup, whose algebraic structure is used to generate novel equations. The Lagrangian formalism based on standard, null, and nonstandard Lagrangians is established for all members of the semigroup. For the null Lagrangians, their corresponding gauge functions are derived. The obtained Lagrangians are either new or generalization of those previously known. The previously developed Lie group approach to derive some equations of the semigroup is also described. It is shown that certain equations of the semigroup cannot be factorized, and therefore, their Lie groups cannot be determined. A possible solution of this problem is proposed, and the relationship between the Lagrangian formalism and the Lie group approach is discussed.