Journal of Applied Mathematics

Journal of Applied Mathematics / 2012 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2012 |Article ID 932014 | 9 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/932014

The Dual of Generalized Fuzzy Subspaces

Academic Editor: Bernard Geurts
Received24 Feb 2012
Revised12 May 2012
Accepted23 Jun 2012
Published13 Aug 2012

Abstract

We define the dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces first. These concepts generalize the dual of fuzzy subspaces. And then we investigate the double dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces.

1. Introduction and Preliminaries

In fuzzy algebra, fuzzy subspaces are basic concepts. They had been introduced by Katsaras and Liu [1] in 1977 as a generalization of the usual notion of vector spaces. Since then, many results of fuzzy subspaces had been obtained in the literature [1–4]. Moreover, many researches in fuzzy algebra are closely related to fuzzy subspaces, such as fuzzy subalgebras of an associative algebra [5], fuzzy Lie ideals of a Lie algebra [6], fuzzy subcoalgebras of a coalgebra [7]. Hence fuzzy subspaces play an important role in fuzzy algebra. In 1996, Abdukhalikov [8] defined the dual of fuzzy subspaces as a generalization of the dual of 𝑘-vector spaces. This notion was also studied and applied in many branches [2, 7–9], especially in the fuzzy subcoalgebras [7] and fuzzy bialgebras [9].

After the introduction of fuzzy sets by Zadeh [10], there are a number of generalizations of this fundamental concept. So it is natural to study algebraic structures connecting with them. In this paper, we aim our attention at the dual of vector space in intuitionistic fuzzy sets, interval-valued fuzzy sets, and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets for our further researches.

1.1. Atanassov's Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

In [11] intuitionistic fuzzy sets are defined as follows:

Definition 1.1. An intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS, for short) on a universe 𝑋 is defined as an object having the form 𝐴={⟨𝑥,𝜇𝐴(𝑥),𝜈𝐴(𝑥)⟩∣𝑥∈𝑋}, where the functions 𝜇𝐴∶𝑋→[0,1] and 𝜈𝐴∶𝑋→[0,1] denote the degree of membership (namely, 𝜇𝐴(𝑥)) and the degree of nonmembership (namely, ) of each element to the set , respectively, and 0≤𝜇𝐴(𝑥)+𝜈𝐴(𝑥)≤1 for each 𝑥∈𝑋. For the sake of simplicity, we shall use the symbol 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) for the intuitionistic fuzzy set 𝐴={⟨𝑥,𝜇𝐴(𝑥),𝜈𝐴(𝑥)⟩∣𝑥∈𝑋}. The class of IFSs on a universe 𝑋 is denoted by IFS (𝑋).

In 1993, Gau and Buehrer [12] defined vague sets. Later, Bustince and Burillo [13] proved that the notion of vague sets is as same as that of intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

With the definition of intuitionistic fuzzy sets, we can give the following definition.

Definition 1.2. Let 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) be an intuitionistic fuzzy set of 𝑘-vector space 𝑉. For any 𝑥,𝑦∈𝑉 and 𝛼,𝛽∈𝑘, if it satisfies 𝜇𝐴(𝛼𝑥+𝛽𝑦)≥min{𝜇𝐴(𝑥),𝜇𝐴(𝑦)} and 𝜈𝐴(𝛼𝑥+𝛽𝑦)≤max{𝜈𝐴(𝑥),𝜈𝐴(𝑦)}, then 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) is called an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑉.

1.2. Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets

The notion of interval-valued fuzzy sets was first introduced by Zadeh [14] as an extension of fuzzy sets in which the values of the membership degrees are intervals of numbers instead of the numbers.

Definition 1.3. An interval-valued fuzzy set 𝐴=(𝐴𝐿,𝐴𝑈) on a universe 𝑋 (IVFS, for short) is a mapping 𝑋→Int([0,1]), where Int([0,1]) stands for the set of all closed subintervals of [0,1]. The class of all IVFSs on a universe 𝑋 is denoted by IVFS(𝑋).

In [15] the interval-valued fuzzy sets are called grey sets.

Notations. For interval numbers 𝐷1=[ğ‘Žğ¿1,𝑏𝑈1],𝐷2=[ğ‘Žğ¿2,𝑏𝑈2]∈Int([0,1]). We define 𝐷𝑟min1,𝐷2î€¾ğ‘Ž=𝑟min𝐿1,𝑏𝑈1,î€ºğ‘Žğ¿2,𝑏𝑈2=î€ºî€½ğ‘Žî€»î€¾min𝐿1,ğ‘Žğ¿2𝑏,min𝑈1,𝑏𝑈2,𝐷𝑟max1,𝐷2î€¾ğ‘Ž=𝑟max𝐿1,𝑏𝑈1,î€ºğ‘Žğ¿2,𝑏𝑈2=î€ºî€½ğ‘Žî€»î€¾max𝐿1,ğ‘Žğ¿2𝑏,max𝑈1,𝑏𝑈2,(1.1) and put (a)𝐷1≤𝐷2â‡”ğ‘Žğ¿1â‰¤ğ‘Žğ¿2 and 𝑏𝑈1≤𝑏𝑈2, (b)𝐷1=𝐷2â‡”ğ‘Žğ¿1=ğ‘Žğ¿2 and 𝑏𝑈1=𝑏𝑈2, (c)𝐷1<𝐷2⇔𝐷1≤𝐷2 and 𝐷1≠𝐷2.
In [16], Deschrijver and Kerre presented that the mapping between the lattices IVFS(𝑋) and IFS(𝑋) is an isomorphism. Thus intuitionistic fuzzy sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are same from mathematical viewpoints.

Similarly, we can define the following.

Definition 1.4. Let 𝐴=(𝐴𝐿,𝐴𝑈) be an interval-valued fuzzy set of 𝑘-vector space 𝑉. For any 𝑥,𝑦∈𝑉 and 𝛼,𝛽∈𝑘, if it satisfies 𝐴(𝛼𝑥+𝛽𝑦)≥𝑟min{𝐴(𝑥),𝐴(𝑦)}, then 𝐴=(𝐴𝐿,𝐴𝑈) is called an interval-valued fuzzy subspace of 𝑉.

1.3. Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

The following definition generalizes the definitions of IFS and IVFS.

Definition 1.5 (see [17]). An interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set on a universe 𝑋 (IVIFS, for short) is an object of the form 𝐴={(𝑥,𝑀𝐴(𝑥),𝑁𝐴(𝑥))∣𝑥∈𝑋}, where 𝑀𝐴∶𝑋→Int([0,1]) and 𝑁𝐴∶𝑋→Int([0,1]) satisfy for any . The class of all IVIFSs on a universe is denoted by .

Definition 1.6. Let be an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set of -vector space . For any and , if it satisfies and , then is called an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of .

In this paper, intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces, interval-valued fuzzy subspaces and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces are called generalized fuzzy subspaces. In Section 2, we study the dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces. At first, we give the definitions of the dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces, and then discuss their properties and the relationship between them. In Section 3, we investigate the double dual of intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces. Other cases can be investigated similarly. At last a conclusion is presented.

2. The Dual of Generalized Fuzzy Subspaces

In this paper, is denoted the dual space of , that is, the vector space of all linear maps from to . We recall the following.

Definition 2.1 (see [8]). Let be a fuzzy subspace of -vector space .
Define by then is called the dual of fuzzy subspace .

Now, we study the dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces.

2.1. The Dual of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subspaces

Let be an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of -vector space . Then for any , which implies . Hence we give the definition of the dual of intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces as follows.

Definition 2.2. Let be an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of -vector space .
Define , where
Obviously, is an intuitionistic fuzzy set of and is called the dual of intuitionistic fuzzy subspace. The class of all the dual of intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces of is denoted by .

In [11], Atanassov defined two operators and ◊. Let 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) be an intuitionistic fuzzy set. Then □𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜇𝑐𝐴) and ◊𝐴=(𝜈𝑐𝐴,𝜈𝐴). Using the notations in the dual of intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces, we have the following.

Remark 2.3. (1) If 𝐴=□𝐴, then 𝐴∗=◊𝐴∗.
(2) If 𝐴=◊𝐴, then 𝐴∗=□𝐴∗.
Following the above remark, Definition 2.1 is the special case of Definition 2.2. And we can give a characterization of the intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces.

Theorem 2.4. 𝐴∗=(𝜇𝐴∗,𝜈𝐴∗) is an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑉∗ if and only if □𝐴∗ and ◊𝐴∗ are intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces of 𝑉∗.

In the end, we give an explain of Definition 2.2 intuitively.

Remark 2.5. Let 10 experts vote to 𝐴 and 𝐵 and require per expert to vote at most one. The result is that 𝐴 is 5 and 𝐵 is 3. That is, the number of the supporters of 𝐴 is 5 and the number of the supporters of 𝐵 is 3.
In the voting model, 𝐴 and 𝐵 can be regarded as the dual objects. The analysis indicates that the number of supporters of 𝐴 is equal to the number of objectors of 𝐵 and the number of supporters of 𝐵 is equal to the number of objectors of 𝐴. So if 𝐵 is the dual of 𝐴 and the numbers of supporters and objectors of 𝐴 are known, then we can calculate the supporters of 𝐵 by the objectors of 𝐴 and the objectors of 𝐵 by the supporters of 𝐴.
This is the idea that the 𝜇𝐴∗ is defined by 𝜈𝐴 and the 𝜈𝐴∗ is defined by 𝜇𝐴 in Definition 2.2.

2.2. The Dual of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Subspaces

Definition 2.6. Let 𝐴=(𝐴𝐿,𝐴𝑈) be an interval-valued fuzzy subspace of 𝑘-vector space 𝑉.
Define 𝐴∗=(𝐴∗𝐿,𝐴∗𝑈), where 𝐴∗∶𝑉∗[]⟶Int(0,1)by𝐴∗[][](𝑓)=1,1−sup{𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑥)≠0}if𝑓≠01,1−inf{𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉}if𝑓=0.(2.3)
Then 𝐴∗=(𝐴∗𝐿,𝐴∗𝑈) is called the dual of an interval-valued fuzzy subspace. The class of all the dual of interval-valued fuzzy subspace of 𝑉∗ is denoted by DIVFS(𝑉∗).

Remark 2.7. In Definition 2.6, the definition of 𝐴∗=(𝐴∗𝐿,𝐴∗𝑈) can be described in detail as follows: 𝐴∗𝐿∶𝑉∗⟶[]0,1by𝐴∗𝐿𝐴(𝑓)=1−sup𝐿𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑥)≠0if𝑓≠01−inf𝐿𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉if𝑓=0,∗𝑈∶𝑉∗⟶[]0,1by𝐴∗𝑈𝐴(𝑓)=1−sup𝑈𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑥)≠0if𝑓≠01−inf𝑈(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉if𝑓=0.(2.4)
The following theorem indicates that the dual of intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces and the dual of interval-valued fuzzy subspaces are same upon the lattice isomorphism.

Theorem 2.8. The mapping 𝜑∶DIVFS(𝑉∗)→DIFS(𝑉∗) by 𝜇↦𝐴 is an isomorphism between the lattices DIVFS(𝑉∗) and DIFS(𝑉∗), where 𝜇=(𝜇𝐿,𝜇𝑈)∶𝑉∗→Int([0,1]) by 𝑓↦(𝜇𝐿(𝑓),𝜇𝑈(𝑓)) and 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴)=(𝜇𝐴=𝜇𝑈,𝜈𝐴=1−𝜇𝐿).

2.3. The Dual of Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subspaces

Definition 2.9. Let 𝐴=(𝑀𝐴,𝑁𝐴) be an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑘-vector space 𝑉.
Define 𝐴∗=(𝑀𝐴∗,𝑁𝐴∗), where 𝑀𝐴∗∶𝑉∗[]⟶Int(0,1)by𝑀𝐴∗𝑁(𝑓)=inf𝐴𝑁(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑥)≠0if𝑓≠0sup𝐴𝑁(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉if𝑓=0,𝐴∗∶𝑉∗[]⟶Int(0,1)by𝑁𝐴∗𝑀(𝑓)=sup𝐴𝑀(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑥)≠0if𝑓≠0inf𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉if𝑓=0.(2.5)
Then 𝐴∗=(𝑀𝐴∗,𝑁𝐴∗) is called the dual of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspace.

Theorem 2.10. The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set 𝐴∗=(𝑀𝐴∗,𝑁𝐴∗) is an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑉∗.

Proof. Since 𝑀𝐴∗(0) is the upper bound of 𝑀𝐴∗(𝑉∗) and 𝑁𝐴∗(0) is the lower bound of 𝑁𝐴∗(𝑉∗), it suffices to show that the nonempty sets 𝑈(𝑀𝐴∗,[𝛿1,𝛿2])={𝑓∈𝑉∗∣𝑀𝐴∗(𝑓)≥[𝛿1,𝛿2]} and 𝐿(𝑁𝐴∗,[𝜉1,𝜉2])={𝑓∈𝑉∗∣𝑁𝐴∗(𝑓)≤[𝜉1,𝜉2]} are subspaces of 𝑉∗ for all [𝛿1,𝛿2],[𝜉1,𝜉2]∈[𝑁𝐴∗(0),𝑀𝐴∗(0)]. The remainder proof can be imitated by Theorem 3.2 of [8].

Remark 2.11. The result is also true for intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces and interval-valued fuzzy subspaces.

Example 2.12. Let 𝑉={𝑥=(0,ğ‘Ž,𝑏)âˆ£ğ‘Ž,𝑏∈𝑅} be a two dimensional vector space and 𝑉∗ be its dual space. We define 𝐴=(𝑀𝐴,𝑁𝐴), where for 𝑘∈𝑅 and ğ‘¥âˆˆğ‘‰ğ‘€ğ´âŽ§âŽªâŽ¨âŽªâŽ©ğ‘Ž(𝑥)=1𝑏if𝑥=(0,𝑘,0)1𝑐if𝑥=(0,0,𝑘)1𝑑if𝑥=(0,0,0)1𝑁otherwise,ğ´âŽ§âŽªâŽ¨âŽªâŽ©ğ‘Ž(𝑥)=2𝑏if𝑥=(0,𝑘,0)2𝑐if𝑥=(0,0,𝑘)2𝑑if𝑥=(0,0,0)2otherwise,(2.6)
If ğ‘Ž1=[0.3,0.4], 𝑏1=[0.2,0.5], 𝑐1=[1,1], 𝑑1=[0.2,0.4] and ğ‘Ž2=[0.5,0.6], 𝑏2=[0.4,0.5], 𝑐2=[0,0], 𝑑2=[0.5,0.6], then 𝐴 is an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspace. By Definition 2.9, 𝐴∗=(𝑀𝐴∗,𝑁𝐴∗), where if 𝑓≠0, 𝑀𝐴∗(𝑓)=[0.4,0.5] and 𝑁𝐴∗(𝑓)=[0.3,0.5], if 𝑓=0, 𝑀𝐴∗(0)=[0.5,0.6] and 𝑁𝐴∗(0)=[0.2,0.4]. Then 𝐴∗=(𝑀𝐴∗,𝑁𝐴∗) is an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑉∗.
If ğ‘Ž1=0.3, 𝑏1=0.4, 𝑐1=1, 𝑑1=0.3 and ğ‘Ž2=0.5, 𝑏2=0.2, 𝑐2=0, 𝑑1=0.5, then 𝐴 is an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace. By Definition 2.6, 𝐴∗=(𝑀𝐴∗,𝑁𝐴∗), where if 𝑓≠0, 𝑀𝐴∗(𝑓)=0.2 and 𝑁𝐴∗(𝑓)=0.4, if 𝑓=0, 𝑀𝐴∗(0)=0.5 and 𝑁𝐴∗(0)=0.3. Then 𝐴∗=(𝑀𝐴∗,𝑁𝐴∗) is an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑉∗.

3. The Double Dual of Generalized Fuzzy Subspaces

In this section, we mainly study the double dual of intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces. The double dual of interval-valued fuzzy subspaces and the double dual of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces can be investigated similarly.

Let 𝑉 be a 𝑘-vector space and 𝑉∗ be the space of all linear maps from 𝑉 to 𝑘. Then 𝑉∗∗=(𝑉∗)∗ is the space of all linear maps from 𝑉∗ to 𝑘, which is the double dual space for 𝑉. There exists a canonical injection 𝑖∶𝑉→𝑉∗∗ by 𝑖(𝑥)(𝑓)=𝑓(𝑥). If dim𝑉<∞, then the injection 𝑖 is an isomorphism.

Let 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) be an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑘-vector space 𝑉. Then the intuitionistic fuzzy subspace 𝐴∗∗=(𝜇𝐴∗∗,𝜈𝐴∗∗)∶𝑉∗∗→[0,1] is defined by 𝜇𝐴∗∗𝜈(𝑥)=inf𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗𝜈,𝑥(𝑓)≠0if𝑥≠0sup𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗𝜈if𝑥=0,𝐴∗∗𝜇(𝑥)=sup𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗𝜇,𝑥(𝑓)≠0if𝑥≠0inf𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗if𝑥=0.(3.1)

Theorem 3.1. Let 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) be an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑘-vector space 𝑉 and 𝑖∶𝑉→𝑉∗∗ be the canonical injection. Then 𝐴∗∗(𝑖(𝑥))=𝐴(𝑥) for all 𝑥∈𝑉⧵{0}.

Proof. Let 0≠𝑥∈𝑉. Then let 𝜇𝐴∗∗𝜈(𝑖(𝑥))=inf𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗,𝑖(𝑥)(𝑓)≠0=inf𝑓∈𝑉∗,𝑖(𝑥)(𝑓)=𝑓(𝑥)≠0𝜇sup𝐴(,𝜈𝑦)∣𝑦∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑦)≠0𝐴∗∗𝜇(𝑖(𝑥))=sup𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗,𝑖(𝑥)(𝑓)≠0=sup𝑓∈𝑉∗,𝑖(𝑥)(𝑓)=𝑓(𝑥)≠0𝜈inf𝐴.(𝑦)∣𝑦∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑦)≠0(3.2)
Denote 𝑆={𝑓∈𝑉∗∣𝑓(𝑥)≠0} and let 𝜇𝐴(𝑥)=𝑡1,𝜈𝐴(𝑥)=𝑡2.
Let 𝑓∈𝑆. Then if 𝑦∈𝑈𝑡1, we have 𝑓(𝑦)≠0 and sup𝑦∈𝑈𝑡1,𝑓(𝑦)≠0{𝜇𝐴(𝑦)}≥𝑡1; if 𝑦∉𝑈𝑡1, we have 𝑓(𝑦)≠0 and 𝜇𝐴(𝑦)<𝑡1, so sup𝑦∈𝑉⧵𝑈𝑡1,𝑓(𝑦)≠0{𝜇𝐴(𝑦)}<𝑡1.
Hence for 𝑦∈𝑉⧵{0}, then sup𝑓(𝑦)≠0{𝜇𝐴(𝑦)}≥𝑡1. Since 𝑥∈𝑉⧵{0} and 𝑓(𝑥)≠0, we have inf𝑓∈𝑉∗,𝑖(𝑥)(𝑓)=𝑓(𝑥)≠0𝜇sup𝐴(𝑦)∣𝑦∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑦)≠0=𝑡1=𝜇𝐴(𝑥).(3.3)
On the other hand, let 𝑓∈𝑆. Thenif 𝑦∈𝐿𝑡2, we have 𝑓(𝑦)≠0 and inf𝑦∈𝐿𝑡2,𝑓(𝑦)≠0{𝜈𝐴(𝑦)}≤𝑡2; if 𝑦∉𝐿𝑡2, we have 𝑓(𝑦)≠0 and 𝜈𝐴(𝑦)>𝑡2, so inf𝑦∈𝑉⧵𝐿𝑡2,𝑓(𝑦)≠0{𝜈𝐴(𝑦)}>𝑡2.
Hence for 𝑦∈𝑉⧵{0}, then inf𝑓(𝑦)≠0{𝜈𝐴(𝑦)}≤𝑡2. Since 𝑥∈𝑉⧵{0} and 𝑓(𝑥)≠0, we have sup𝑓∈𝑉∗,𝑖(𝑥)(𝑓)=𝑓(𝑥)≠0𝜈inf𝐴(𝑦)∣𝑦∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑦)≠0=𝑡2=𝜈𝐴(𝑥).(3.4)
So 𝜇𝐴∗∗(𝑖(𝑥))=𝜇𝐴(𝑥) and 𝜈𝐴∗∗(𝑖(𝑥))=𝜈𝐴(𝑥).

Theorem 3.2. Let 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) be an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of 𝑘-vector space 𝑉. Then 𝐴∗∗(0)=(𝜇𝐴∗∗(0),𝜈𝐴∗∗(0)), where 𝜇𝐴∗∗(0)=sup{𝜇𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉⧵{0}} and 𝜈𝐴∗∗(0)=inf{𝜈𝐴(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉⧵{0}}.

Proof. We have 𝜇𝐴∗∗𝜈(0)=sup𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗𝜈=sup𝐴∗(𝑓)∣0≠𝑓∈𝑉∗=sup0≠𝑓∈𝑉∗𝜇sup𝐴𝜇(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑥)≠0=sup𝐴,𝜈(𝑥)𝑥∈𝑉⧵{0}𝐴∗∗𝜇(0)=inf𝐴∗(𝑓)∣𝑓∈𝑉∗𝜇=inf𝐴∗(𝑓)∣0≠𝑓∈𝑉∗=inf0≠𝑓∈𝑉∗𝜈inf𝐴𝜈(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉,𝑓(𝑥)≠0=inf𝐴.(𝑥)∣𝑥∈𝑉⧵{0}(3.5)

Theorem 3.3. Let 𝐴=(𝜇𝐴,𝜈𝐴) be an intuitionistic fuzzy subspace of finite dimensional 𝑘-vector space 𝑉 and 𝜇𝐴(0)=sup{𝜇𝐴(𝑉⧵{0})} and 𝜈𝐴(0)=inf{𝜈𝐴(𝑉⧵{0})}. Then the canonical map 𝑖∶𝑉→𝑉∗∗ is an isomorphism between the intuitionistic fuzzy subspace 𝐴 and 𝐴∗∗.

Proof. Follows from Theorems 3.1 and 3.2.

4. Conclusions

In this paper, we study the contents of the dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces. Generalized fuzzy subspaces, including intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces, interval-valued fuzzy subspaces and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy subspaces, are the basic contents for the further study of some algebras [18, 19]. Moreover, many algebras have the dual structures. Therefore it makes sense to investigate the dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces. In the future, we will consider the applications of the dual of generalized fuzzy subspaces in coalgebras and bialgebras.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to show their sincere thanks to the referees. This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 61070241, 11126301) and Promotive Research Fund for Young and Middle-aged Scientists of Shandong Province (no. BS2011SF002).

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Copyright © 2012 Wenjuan Chen and Yanyong Guan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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