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Journal of Applied Mathematics
Volume 2013, Article ID 189706, 8 pages
Research Article

A Steganographic Method Based on Pixel-Value Differencing and the Perfect Square Number

1Department of Information Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, No.168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan
2Department of Mathematics, Changhua University of Education, No.1, Jin-De Road, Changhua County 50058, Taiwan

Received 29 March 2013; Accepted 13 June 2013

Academic Editor: Carlos Conca

Copyright © 2013 Hsien-Wen Tseng and Hui-Shih Leng. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The pixel-value differencing (PVD) scheme uses the difference value between two consecutive pixels in a block to determine how many secret bits should be embedded. There are two types of the quantization range table in Wu and Tasi's method. The first was based on selecting the range widths of [8, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128], to provide large capacity. The second was based on selecting the range widths of [2, 2, 4, 4, 4, 8, 8, 16, 16, 32, 32, 64, 64], to provide high imperceptibility. Most of the related studies focus on increasing the capacity using LSB and the readjustment process, so their approach is too conformable to the LSB approach. There are very few studies focusing on the range table design. Besides, it is intuitive to design it by using the width of the power of two. This work designs a new quantization range table based on the perfect square number to decide the payload by the difference value between the consecutive pixels. Our research provides a new viewpoint that if we choose the proper width for each range and use the proposed method, we can obtain better image quantity and higher capacity. In addition, we offer a theoretical analysis to show our method is well defined. The experiment results also show the proposed scheme has better image quantity and higher capacity.