Research Article  Open Access
Yuhuan Chen, Chenfu Yi, Jian Zhong, "Linear Simultaneous Equations’ Neural Solution and Its Application to Convex Quadratic Programming with EqualityConstraint", Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2013, Article ID 695647, 6 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/695647
Linear Simultaneous Equations’ Neural Solution and Its Application to Convex Quadratic Programming with EqualityConstraint
Abstract
A gradientbased neural network (GNN) is improved and presented for the linear algebraic equation solving. Then, such a GNN model is used for the online solution of the convex quadratic programming (QP) with equalityconstraints under the usage of Lagrangian function and KarushKuhnTucker (KKT) condition. According to the electronic architecture of such a GNN, it is known that the performance of the presented GNN could be enhanced by adopting different activation function arrays and/or design parameters. Computer simulation results substantiate that such a GNN could obtain the accurate solution of the QP problem with an effective manner.
1. Introduction
A variety of scientific research and practical applications can be finalized as a matrix equation solving problem [1–6]. For example, the analysis of stability and perturbation for a control system could be viewed as the solution of Sylvester matrix equation [1, 2]; the stability and/or robustness properties of a control system could be obtained by the Lyapunov matrix equations solving [4–6]. Therefore, the realtime solution to matrix equation plays a fundamental role in numerous fields of science, engineering, and business.
As for the solution of matrix equations, many numerical algorithms have been proposed. In general, the minimal arithmetic operations of numerical algorithms are usually proportional to the cube of the dimension of the coefficient matrix, that is, [7]. In order to be satisfied with the low complexity and realtime requirements, recently, numerous novel neural networks have been exploited based on the hardware implementation [2, 4, 5, 8–13]. For example, Tank and Hopfield solved the linear programming problems by using their proposed Hopfield neural networks (HNN) [9], which promoted the development of the neural networks in the optimization and other application problems. Wang in [10] proposed a kind of recurrent neural networks (RNN) models for the online solution of the linear simultaneous equations in parallelprocessing circuitimplementation. In the previous work [2, 4, 5, 11], By Zhang's design method, a new type of RNN models is proposed for the solution of linear matrixvector equation associated with the timevarying coefficient matrices in realtime.
In this paper, based on the Wang neural networks [10], we present an improved gradientbased neural model for the linear simultaneous equation, and then, such neural model is applied to solve the quadratic programming with equalityconstraints. Much investigation and analysis on the Wang neural network have been presented in the previous work [10, 12, 13]. To make full use of the Wang neural network, we transform the convex quadratic programming into the general linear matrixequation. Moreover, inspired by the design method of Zhang neural networks [2, 4, 5, 11, 12], the gradientbased neural network (GNN), that is, the Wang neural network, is improved, developed, and investigated for the online solution of the convex quadratic programming with the usage of Lagrangian function and KarushKuhnTucker (KKT) condition. In Section 5, the computer simulation results show that, by improving their structures, we could also obtain the better performance for the existing neural network models.
2. Neural Model for Linear Simultaneous Equations
In this section, a gradientbased neural networks (GNN) model is presented for the linear simultaneous equations: where the nonsingular coefficient matrix and the coefficient vector are given as constants and is an unknown vector to be solved to make (1) hold true.
According to the traditional gradientbased algorithm [8, 10, 12], a scalarvalued normbased energy function is firstly constructed, and then evolving along the descent direction resulting from such energy function, we could obtain the linear GNN model for the solution of linear algebraic (1); that is, where denotes the constant design parameter (or learning rate) used to scale the converge rate. To improve the convergence performance of neural networks, inspired by Zhang’s neural networks [2, 4, 5, 11, 12], the linear model (2) could be improved and reformulated into the following general nonlinear form: where design parameter is a positivedefinite matrix, which is used to scale the convergence rate of the solution. For simplicity, we can use in place of with [4, 11]. In addition, the activationfunctionarray is a matrixvalued mapping, in which each scalarvalued process unit is a monotonically increasing odd function. In general, four basic types of activation functions, linear, power, sigmoid, and powersigmoid functions, can be used for the construction of neural solvers [4, 11]. The behavior of these four functions is exhibited in Figure 1, which shows that a different convergence performance could be achieved by using different activation functions. Furthermore, new activation functions could also be generated readily based on the above four activation functions. As for the neural model (3), we have the following theorem.
(a) Linear function
(b) Sigmoid function
(c) Power function
(d) Powersigmoid function
Theorem 1. Consider a constant nonsingular coefficientmatrix and coefficient vector . If a monotonically increasing odd activationfunction array is used, the neural state of neural model (3), starting from any initial state , would converge to the unique solution of linear equation (1).
Proof. Let solution error . For brevity, hereafter argument is omitted. Then, from (3), we have where for simplicity. Therefore, its entryform could be written as Then, to analyze subsystem (5), we can define a Lyapunov candidate function as . Obviously, for , and only for . Thus, the Lyapunov candidate function is a nonnegative function. Furthermore, combining subsystem (5), we could get the timederivative function of as follows where . Since is an odd monotonically increasing function, we have and Therefore, if , and if and only if . In other words, the timederivative is nonpositive for any . This can guarantee that is a negativedefinite function. By Lyapunov theory [14, 15], each entry of solution error in subsystem (5) can converge to zero; that is, . This means that solution error as time . Therefore, the neural state of neural model (3) could converge to the unique solution of linear equation (1). The proof on the convergence of neural model (3) is thus completed.
3. Problem Formulation on Quadratic Programming
An optimization problem characterized by a quadratic objection function and linear constraints is named as a quadratic programming (QP) problem [16–18]. In this paper, we consider the following quadratic programming problem with equalityconstraints: where is a positive definite Hessian matrix, coefficients and are vectors, and is a full rowrank matrix. They are known as constant coefficients of the to be solved QP problem (8).
Therefore, is unknown to be solved so as to make QP problem (8) hold true; especially, if there is no constraint, (8) is also called quadratic minimum (QM) problem. Mathematically, (8) can be written as . For analysis convenience, let denote the theoretical solution of QP problem (8).
To solve QP problem (8), firstly, let us consider the following general form of quadratic programming: As for (9), a Lagrangian function could be defined as where denotes the Lagrangian multiplier vector and equality constraint . Furthermore, by following the previouslymentioned Lagrangian function and KarushKuhnTucker (KKT) condition, we have Then, (11) could be further formulated as the following matrixvector form: where , , and . Therefore, we can obtain the solution of (8) by transforming QP problem (8) into matrixvector equation (12). In other words, to get the solution of (8), QP problem (8) is firstly transformed into the matrixvector equation (12), which is a linear matrixvector equation similar to the linear simultaneous equations (1), and then, we thus can make full use of the neural solvers presented in Section 2 to solve the QP problem (8). Moreover, the first elements of solution of (12) compose the neural solution of (8), and the Lagrangian vector consists of the last elements.
4. Application to QP Problem Solving
For analysis and comparison convenience, Let denote the theoretical solution of (12). Since QP problem (8) could be formulated into the matrixvector form (12), we can directly utilize the neural solvers (2) and (3) to solve problem (12). Therefore, neural solver (2) used to solve (12) can be written as the following linear form: If such linear model is activated by the nonlinear function arrays, we have In addition, according to model (14), we can also draw its architecture for the electronic realization, as illustrated in Figure 2. From model (14) and Figure 2, we readily know that different performance of (14) can be achieved by using different activation function arrays and design parameter . In the next section, the previouslymentioned four basic functions are used to simulate model (14) for achieving different convergence performance. In addition, from Theorem 1 and [4, 12], we have the following theorem on the convergence performance of GNN model (14).
Theorem 2. Consider the timeinvariant strictlyconvex quadratic programming problem (8). If a monotonically increasing odd activationfunction array is used, the neural state of GNN model (14) could globally converge to the theoretical solution of the linear matrixvector form (12). Note that, the first elements of are corresponding to the theoretical solution of QP problem (8), and the last elements are those of the Lagrangian vector .
5. Simulation and Verification
In this section, neural model (14) is applied to solve the QP problem (8) in realtime for verification. As an illustrative example, consider the following QP problem: Obviously, we can write the equivalent matrixvector form of QP problem (8) with the following coefficients: For analysis and compassion, we can utilize the MATLAB routine “quadprog” to obtain the theoretical solution of QP (15), that is, .
According to Figure 2, GNN model (14) is applied to the solution of QP problem (15) in realtime, together with the usage of powersigmoid function array and design parameter . As shown in Figure 3, we know that, when starting from randomlygenerated initial state , the neural state of GNN model (14) is fit well with the theoretical solution after 10 seconds or so. That is, GNN model (14) could achieve the exact solution. Note that the first elements of neural solution are corresponding to the theoretical solution , while the last elements are the Lagrangian multiplier vector.
In addition, the residual error could be used to track the solutionprocess. The trajectories of residual error could be shown in Figure 4, which is generated by GNN model (14) solving QP problem (15) activated by different activation function arrays, that is, linear, power, sigmoid, and powersigmoid functions, respectively. Obviously, under the same simulation environments (such as, design parameter and GNN model (14)), different convergence performance could be achieved when different activation function arrays are used. As shown in Table 1, we use , GNN_{power}, GNN_{sig}, and GNN_{ps} to denote the performance of residual error obtained by GNN model (14) activated by linear, power, sigmoid, and powersigmoid function arrays and have the following simulative results.(i)When the same design parameter is used, the performance of GNN_{ps} is the best, while the residualerror of GNN_{power} is bigger. For example, when design parameter , . (ii)When the same activation functions are used, the performance of residualerror would be better with the increase of the value of design parameter . For example, when linear functions are used, the values of residualerror are , , and corresponding to , , and , respectively.

Among the four basic activation functions, we could achieve the best convergence performance when using powersigmoid functions under the same situations. Therefore, GNN model (14) has the best convergence performance when using powersigmoid function, while when using power function, there exist apparent residual errors between the neural state and theoretical solution . We thus generally use powersigmoid activation function to achieve the superior convergence performance, as shown in Figure 3.
6. Conclusions
On the basis of the Wang neural network, an improved gradientbased neural network has been presented to the solution of the convex quadratic programming problem in realtime. Compared to the other three activation functions, the powersigmoid function is the best choice for the superior convergence performance. Computer simulation results further substantiate that the presented GNN model could solve the convex QP problem with accuracy and efficiency, and the convergence performance could be obtained by using the powersigmoid activation function.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61363076 and the Programs for Foundations of Jiangxi Province of China (GJJ13649, GJJ12367, GJJ13435, and 20122BAB211019) and partially supported by the Shenzhen Programs (JC201005270257A and JC201104220255A).
References
 P. Liu, S. Zhang, and Q. Li, “On the positive definite solutions of a nonlinear matrix equation,” Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2013, Article ID 676978, 6 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  Zentralblatt MATH  MathSciNet
 Y. Zhang, D. Jiang, and J. Wang, “A recurrent neural network for solving sylvester equation with timevarying coefficients,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1053–1063, 2002. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar
 Y. Li, M. Reisslein, and C. Chakrabarti, “Energyefficient video transmission over a wireless link,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 1229–1244, 2009. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar
 C. Yi, Y. Chen, and X. Lan, “Comparison on neural solvers for the Lyapunov matrix equation with stationary & nonstationary coefficients,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 2495–2502, 2013. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  MathSciNet
 F. Ding and T. Chen, “Gradient based iterative algorithms for solving a class of matrix equations,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1216–1221, 2005. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  MathSciNet
 M. A. Ghorbani, O. Kisi, and M. Aalinezhad, “A probe into the chaotic nature of daily streamflow time series by correlation dimension and largest Lyapunov methods,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 4050–4057, 2010. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar
 Y. Zhang and W. E. Leithead, “Exploiting Hessian matrix and trustregion algorithm in hyperparameters estimation of Gaussian process,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 1264–1281, 2005. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  Zentralblatt MATH  MathSciNet
 X. Zou, Y. Tang, S. Bu, Z. Luo, and S. Zhong, “Neuralnetworkbased approach for extracting eigenvectors and eigenvalues of real normal matrices and some extension to real matrices,” Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2013, Article ID 597628, 13 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  Zentralblatt MATH  MathSciNet
 D. W. Tank and J. J. Hopfield, “Simple neural optimization networks: an A/D converter, signal decision circuit, and a linear programming circuit,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 533–541, 1986. View at: Google Scholar
 J. Wang, “Electronic realisation of recurrent neural network for solving simultaneous linear equations,” Electronics Letters, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 493–495, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
 Y. Zhang, C. Yi, and W. Ma, “Simulation and verification of Zhang neural network for online timevarying matrix inversion,” Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1603–1617, 2009. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar
 C. Yi and Y. Zhang, “Analogue recurrent neural network for linear algebraic equation solving,” Electronics Letters, vol. 44, no. 18, pp. 1078–1080, 2008. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar
 K. Chen, “Robustness analysis of Wang neural network for online linear equation solving,” Electronic Letters, vol. 48, no. 22, pp. 1391–1392, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
 Y. Zhang, “Dual neural networks: design, analysis, and application to redundant robotics,” in Progress in Neurocomputing Research, pp. 41–81, Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 2008. View at: Google Scholar  MathSciNet
 Y. Zhang and J. Wang, “Global exponential stability of recurrent neural networks for synthesizing linear feedback control systems via pole assignment,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 633–644, 2002. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar
 N. Petrot, “Some existence theorems for nonconvex variational inequalities problems,” Abstract and Applied Analysis, vol. 2010, Article ID 472760, 9 pages, 2010. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  Zentralblatt MATH  MathSciNet
 S. Burer and D. Vandenbussche, “A finite branchandbound algorithm for nonconvex quadratic programming via semidefinite relaxations,” Mathematical Programming, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 259–282, 2008. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  Zentralblatt MATH  MathSciNet
 Z. Dostál and R. Kučera, “An optimal algorithm for minimization of quadratic functions with bounded spectrum subject to separable convex inequality and linear equality constraints,” SIAM Journal on Optimization, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 2913–2938, 2010. View at: Publisher Site  Google Scholar  Zentralblatt MATH  MathSciNet
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 Yuhuan Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.