Research Article | Open Access
K. S. Govinder, "Symbolic Implementation of Preliminary Group Classiffication for Ordinary Differential Equations", Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2013, Article ID 976271, 6 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/976271
Symbolic Implementation of Preliminary Group Classiffication for Ordinary Differential Equations
We apply the method of preliminary group classification to ordinary differential equations of the form We show how this method can be implemented via the popular symmetry analysis package PROGRAM LIE provided that the package is supplemented with a small file. We then apply this method to an extension of the generalised Emden-Fowler equation given by = .
Lie symmetry analysis [1–4] is a useful tool in the analysis of differential equations. It often provides routes to solutions where none (or few) exist in addition to usually providing a basis for other ad hoc approaches. A major disadvantage of the Lie approach was that it was quite cumbersome—one had to wade through a system of linear partial differential equations in order to find the symmetries (see  for an example of the complexity of the equations) before actually being able to use the symmetries themselves. Fortunately, there are a number of packages available today [6, 7] which remove this obstacle. We have used SYM  and PROGRAM LIE  to good effect. We mention PROGRAM LIE in particular as it provides results when many other (newer) packages fail.
In the event that the equation being analysed includes arbitrary functions, the analysis usually has to be completed manually. One ends up with a differential equation for the arbitrary function, and one has to analyse this equation to determine the possible forms of the function which will lead to additional symmetries. However, this approach is largely dependent on the perspicacity and persistence of the practitioner; it is easy to omit relevant cases . Fortunately, the method of preliminary group classification [11, 12] can be used to good effect in such situations. However, again, this method must largely be completed manually. While this is a partial classification, it has the advantage of involving algebraic manipulations and not the solution of differential equations. Here, we discuss the method and show how, in the case of ordinary differential equations where the arbitrary function depends only on the independent variable, one can implement the method computationally. We apply the method to an important equation in mathematical physics.
2. Preliminary Group Classification
In order to find the point symmetries of the th order ordinary differential equation where the are arbitrary functions of , we search for an operator of the form that leaves (1) invariant; that is, we require In (3), is the th prolongation of given by  where the superscripts refer to total differentiation with respect to ; that is, and so on. Note also that (3) must take the equation into account (which is the reason for the subscript (1)).
The result of (1) is a partial differential equation in and (and the ). Separating by coefficients of functions of (and then lower derivatives) results in an overdetermined system of linear partial differential equations. This system is then reduced to equations for the . Equation (1) will admit symmetries contingent on the solution of the equations for the .
In the case of the preliminary group classification, on the other hand, we look for operators of the form where we have used the Einstein summation convention over repeated indices. Note that while and are functions in space, the are functions in space—the are now treated as differentiable variables. This operator generates an equivalence transformation of (1) if and only if  Note that we have supplemented (1) with as the only depend on .
Now, we define as the appropriate prolongation of defined via (4) but with the following modification: where Regardless of the form of (1), condition (8) requires For this to hold for arbitrary , we must have (from (11)) and so, in general, we have In other words, when we look for equivalence transformations of (1), we seek operators of the form and then require where is given by (4) (in fact, the arguments of will always be the and the functional dependent of the ). Note that (17) is the standard condition that most computer packages invoked to find symmetries of differential equations. However, by ensuring that our coefficient functions are of the form (15), we are actually finding equivalence transformations.
3. Implementation in PROGRAM LIE
The full details of using PROGRAM LIE can be found in  as well as the files lie.doc, morelie.doc, and readme.lie included with the distribution, so we will not go into the details here. We merely show how to implement the requirement (15) using the Emden-Fowler equation This equation (and variations thereof) has attracted enormous interest over the years. It arises in a number of applications, not the least being in the study of shear-free spherically symmetric spacetimes in general relativity [12, 14–23] (see  for a survey up to 1975 which, even then, had numerous references). Variations of (18) can be found in the study of stellar structure , thermodynamics , and other fields .
The file usually created to analyse this equation for point symmetries is given by Algorithm 1.
However, in the method of preliminary group classification, the arbitrary function is treated as a variable. Thus, instead of one dependent variable, we will have two. As a result, the input file is modified to read as Algorithm 2.
A normal run of PROGRAM LIE for (18) will require entering the command RDS(EF1,DAT); at the ? prompt (where we have assumed that the input file has been named EF1.DAT). Thereafter, one enters DOLIE();. Now, we examine the equations using the command A#; (which is usually not necessary in the standard analysis). This outputs the equations to be analysed to the screen. In this case, the output is Algorithm 3.
The final three lines of output indicate the coefficient functions with the correspondence ξ →F#(3,U1,X1)+, η→F#(1,U1,X1) and ω→F#(2,U1,U2,X1). In order to implement the requirement (15), we need to enter, in turn, the following three commands at the ? prompt (see Algorithm 4).
Continuing the programme via DOSOLV();, DOCHECK();, and then DOVEC(); will produce the required equivalence transformations.
Instead of entering these steps in manually, all one needs to do, after reading in the file name via RDS(EF1,DAT); is to enter the command RDS(PGC,FIX); where pgc.fix is given in Algorithm 5.
4. Application to an Extended Emden-Fowler-Type Equation
A simple extension of (18), namely, was analysed by Leach and Maharaj . In the case of , , it reduces to (18). If we now relax the requirement to , the equation is central in the study of charged shear-free spherically symmetric spacetimes [15–17, 29–31]. Leach and Maharaj  analyse this general equation (19) and interpret it as a time-dependent anharmonic oscillator. We observe that the only case of (19) being linearisable via a point transformation is when it is linear, that is, when , .
While a variety of methods have been used in the analysis of restricted forms of (19), the most successful method is that of Lie's theory of extended groups. In most cases, (except for  where the case of (18) was analysed), the method has been applied directly [19, 20]; that is, (19) (or subcases thereof) was assumed to possess a Lie point symmetry of the form (2). Here we apply the systematic method of preliminary group classification utilising pgc.fix in PROGRAM LIE. As we have more than one unknown function, we need to modify pgc.fix to allow for additional functions. All we need do is repeat the line A#:EVSUB(A#,F#(2,U1,U2,X1),F#(2000,U2,X1)); until we have covered all the functions (in our case we have four functions) and then increment the line A#:EVSUB(A#,F#(3,U1,U2,X1),F#(3000,X1)); appropriately.
As we are interested in functional forms for (all of which depend only on ), we need to consider projections of (20) onto the space; that is, we utilise the Lie algebra comprised of the operators
The main ideas of the method of preliminary group classification reside in the following facts : (i) if is invariant with respect to an element of , then (19) is invariant with respect to the corresponding element of , and (ii) all equations of the form which admit similar Lie algebras which are subalgebras of , must be equivalent with respect to the equivalence transformation obtained via . (While we have stated these conditions with regard to the specific equation (19) and Lie algebras and , they are applicable in a more general setting.) We use these facts to determine those forms of for which (19) admits symmetries.
The subalgebras of low-dimensional Lie algebras have already been determined by Patera and Winternitz  (though there are some concerns over the accuracy of that work ). For , the one-dimensional subalgebras are given by where , is arbitrary, and . The forms of which allow for a symmetry (after projection onto the space) of the form given above are given by calculating the invariants of each equivalence transformation. The results are given in Table 1. We also give the results for the case given the enormous interest in this particular form of the equation.
Remark 1. In Table 1, we have all the cases for which (19) admits a single symmetry. What this means is that all other cases of (19) which admit a single symmetry can be transformed to one of the cases listed here. Importantly, the one case listed in  but missing from this table is that of . However, this case is simply obtained by the combination . It is a simple matter to transform this form of to the result in the final row of Table 1. However, we note that the result contained in that row has not previously been found.
In , Leach and Maharaj provide a detailed Lie analysis of (19) including forms for which admit one or two symmetries. Here, we have been able to reproduce their results through a simple calculation and utilising a computer package. Interestingly, the forms of which admit two symmetries are easy to find, again without resorting to the laborious calculations in . Indeed, all one needs to do is look at the two-dimensional subalgebras of  as follows: where is arbitrary. Since does not affect the invariant form of the , any invariant form generated by and would be unaffected by the operation of . Thus, the in the first row of Table 1 and the third row (with ) will have as a second symmetry. This takes care of the first two cases in (25). In fact, this applies to the third case as well if we take in the fourth row of Table 1. Finally, we have the fourth case of (25). Here, we take the result of the third row in Table 1 and operate on it with . The result forces , and the invariant form of reduces to that in the first row. These results correspond to the three cases in  which admit two symmetries (up to scalings and translations). We are thus able to provide all the results of  in a straightforward, algorithmic manner.
We have been able to provide a simple means of automating the search for (restricted) equivalence transformations for ordinary differential equations which have arbitrary functions of the independent variable. This was achieved by supplementing PROGRAM LIE  with some simple substitution commands based on results from the theory. We were able to apply this approach to an important equation in mathematical physics. All known results were regenerated in a straightforward, uncomplicated fashion.
This approach will also work for partial differential equations. Again, the only class of equations for which the search for equivalence transformations can be automated is that which contains arbitrary functions of the independent variable. A similar fix to pgc.fix will work in those cases.
The authors thank the University of KwaZulu-Natal and the National Research Foundation of South Africa for continuing support. This paper was completed while visiting the Mathematical Biosciences Institute at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, USA, and they thank Professor M. Golubitsky and the staff of the institute for their warm hospitality and support during their stay. They also thank Michael Okelola for providing them with a copy of .
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Copyright © 2013 K. S. Govinder. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.