Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry has recently been accepted into Food Science and Technology Abstracts.
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry publishes research into the methods and instrumentation used in chemical analysis, including spectroscopic, spectrometric and wet chemistry techniques, and their applications in real-world problems.
Chief Editor, Professor Verónica Pino, is based in the Chemistry Department (Analytical Chemistry Division) at Universidad de La Laguna, Spain. Her research involves designing new, smart, sustainable, selective and efficient materials to be used in a wide range of applications.
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Combination of a Green and a Traditional Method for Estimating Relative and Absolute Ink Age: A Case Study of Ballpoint Pen Ink Dating in Vietnam
The dating of ink in questioned documents remains a significant challenge in forensic investigations in Vietnam and other countries. Many forensic examination methods have been usually applied to ensure the highest accuracy of the assessment results while maintaining high environment awareness. In this study, paper characteristics were physically tested to confirm source similarity, and the relative ink dating was established by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Absolute ink dating by solvent and dye identification was performed by Raman spectrometry—a green technique, using a time-dependent degradation model for crystal violet and the comparison between 2-phenoxyethanol peak intensities. We found that the relative dating of the questioned document was 14 ± 3 months lesser than that of the reference samples, i.e., the absolute age of the questioned samples was estimated to be 24 ± 3 months. The combination of the conventional HPTLC method with the dynamic crystal violet degradation Raman model provides promising results for relative and absolute ink dating of ballpoint pens, which can be applied for documents written 1–15 years prior to the time of examination. The combination of the abovementioned methods demonstrated an acceptable error margin, affording highly practical applications in modern forensic science.
Single Standard Substance for the Simultaneous Determination of Eleven Components in the Extract of Paeoniae Radix Alba (Root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.)
Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA), an herbal drug produced from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., is widely used in many herbal medicine prescriptions/preparations. Since the pharmacological effects of PRA come from multiple chemical components, it is important to establish a method for the determination of those components in PRA extracts with simple operation and low cost, which is more suitable to evaluate the quality of PRA extracts and optimize the extraction process. This work introduced the quantitative analysis of multicomponents with a single-marker (QAMS) method for the simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive components in PRA extracts, including gallic acid, oxypaeoniflorin, catechin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, ethyl gallate, galloylpaeoniflorin, pentagalloylglucose, benzoic acid, benzoylpaeoniflorin, and paeonol. In the QAMS method established based on high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, only the reference substance of paeoniflorin was needed, and the other ten components were determined based on their relative correction factors (RCFs) to paeoniflorin. Moreover, the repeatability and robustness of the RCFs were studied with different column temperatures, detection wavelengths, flow rates, column types, and instruments. In method validation, good linearity (r > 0.999), stability, repeatability (RSD < 1.9%), and accuracy (recoveries within 96.1%–105.5%) were shown. Sample analyses showed that the QAMS method was consistent with the conventional external standard method. The established method provided a comprehensive, efficient, and low-cost tool for the routine quality evaluation of PRA extracts.
Termination of Repeat Testing in Chemical Laboratories Based on Practice Guidelines: Examining the Effect of Rule-Based Repeat Testing in a Transplantation Center
Background. Although the automation of instruments has reduced the variability of results and errors of analysis, in some laboratories, repeating a test to confirm its accuracy is still performed for critical and noncritical results. However, the importance of repeat testing is not well established yet, and there are no clear criteria for repeating a test. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, all repeated tests for 26 biochemical analytes (i.e., albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin total (BT), bilirubin direct (BD), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium, chloride (Cl), cholesterol total (CholT), creatine kinase (CK), creatinine (Cr), glucose, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), LDL-c, lipase, magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (Ph), protein total (ProtT), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), triglyceride (TG), and uric acid) were assessed in both critical and noncritical ranges over two consecutive months (routine subjective test repeats in the first month and rule-based repeats in the second month). To determine the usefulness of test repeats, differences between the initial and verified results were compared with the allowable bias, and repeat testing was considered necessary if it exceeded the allowable bias range. All causes of repeat testing, including linearity flags, delta checks, clinically significant values, and critical values, were also documented. All data, including the cause of repeats, initial and verified results, time, and costs in the two consecutive months, were transferred to Microsoft Excel for analysis. For comparison of data between the months, Student’s t-test was used. Results. A total of 7714 repeat tests were performed over two consecutive months. Although a significant decline (38%) was found in repeated tests in the second month ( < 0.001), there was no significant change in the percentage of unnecessary repeats (77% in the first month and 74% in the second month). In both consecutive months, AST and ALT were the most commonly repeated tests, and delta check was the most common cause of repeat testing. Mg, ALP, AST, and lipase showed the highest rates of necessary repeats, respectively (the least stable tests), while albumin, LDL, and CholT tests showed the highest rates of unnecessary repeats, respectively (the most stable tests). The total cost and delay in turnaround time (TAT) due to repeated testing decreased by 32% and 36%, respectively. Conclusion. Although repeat testing has been shown to be unnecessary in most cases, having a strict policy for repeat testing appears to be more valuable than avoiding it completely. Each laboratory is advised to establish its own protocol for repeat testing based on its own practice.
Economic Spectrofluorometric Bioanalysis of Empagliflozin in Rats’ Plasma
A simple, economic, green, and sensitive bioanalytical method for empagliflozin bioassay in rats’ plasma was employed successfully owing to the empagliflozin native fluorescence behavior. Enhanced liquid-liquid extraction, using diethyl ether (DEE), was successfully employed for the improved extraction of empagliflozin from rats’ plasma based on its high value of logP as 1.8 that boosted the drug migration from plasma to the organic layer. The relative fluorescence intensity for empagliflozin was recorded at emission (299.4 nm) after excitation at 226.5 nm. The method was validated with satisfactory results for linearity (500–5000 ng/mL), trueness, precision, the matrix effect, and extraction recovery. The matrix effect ranged between 15.63% and 23.10% for LQC and HQC samples, respectively. Extraction recovery ranged between 54.61% and 62.54% for LQC and HQC samples, respectively. Bias values for the trueness ranged between −10.62 and +14.95, while %RSD values for the precision ranged between 5.39% and 9.33%. The method was successfully applied to rats’ plasma samples that included six rats, and the drug concentration was determined in their plasma after 1 hour (estimated Cmax based on literature) following oral administration of empagliflozin with a concentration of 10 mg/Kg, p.o.. The developed cost-effective spectrofluorimetric method in the present work will be of beneficial use in further pharmacokinetic studies that include rats’ plasma and biological fluids. Moreover, with the suitable modifications, the described novel extraction of empagliflozin could be adopted to human plasma samples and future clinical studies. Moreover, development of new simple cost-effective methods is necessary to give the researchers a set of “varieties” that they can use according to the laboratory limitations, especially in the developing countries in addition of being a greener method due to the lower consumption of toxic solvents and lower waste production.
Development of Simple Analytical Method for B-Group Vitamins in Nutritional Products: Enzymatic Digestion and UPLC-MS/MS Quantification
A method for the simultaneous determination of seven B-group vitamers including thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, niacin, pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine in nutritional products by using enzymatic digestion followed by LC-MS/MS quantification was studied. The LC-MS/MS conditions such as MS transitions, mobile phase programs, and ammonium formate buffer concentrations, and sample treatment procedures (e.g., concentrations of buffer solution, digestion temperature, and digestion time) were investigated. The analytical method performance was evaluated by multiple criteria such as selectivity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, repeatability, reproducibility, and recovery by using real sample matrices. The validated method was successfully applied to analyze vitamin B concentrations in different nutritional products like ultra-heat-treated milk, powdered milk, and nutritional powder. Vitamin B concentrations varied over a wide range from lower than detection limits to about 9000 µg/100 g, depending on vitamin groups, compound forms, and sample types. The measured concentrations of B-group vitamins in our samples were generally in good agreement with values of label claims.
Rapid Screening and Quantitative Determination of Illegal Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors (PDE-5i) in Herbal Dietary Supplements
Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are the first-line medication for oral erectile dysfunction, which are used according to the prescription of doctors. However, these substances have been found illegally in supplementary foods. The quality and safety of dietary supplements for enhancing male sexual performance have been questioned, raising the need for continual development of analytical methods. Liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry has become one of the most effective methods to identify and measure PDE-5i concentration. In this research, we focused on (i) developing and validating an effective screening and quantitation method for more than 53 PDE-5i in ingredients and supplementary products using LC-Q-Exactive after a simple sample extraction and (ii) assessing PDE-5i content in natural-based supplementary products available in Vietnam market. The extraction method used a small amount of organic solvent, which makes it more environmentally friendly (greener). The developed method has a limit of detection of 0.4 mg/kg, a limit of quantitation of 1.2 mg/kg, recoveries from 80 to 110%, and repeatability lower than 15%. Ninety-two herbal supplementary foods and ingredients used for enhancement of male sexual performance available in Vietnamese markets were collected. Fourteen PDE-5i including conventional and novel analogous were detected and measured in eighteen food supplements and two formulation ingredient samples.