Chemical Fingerprint Analysis for Discovering Markers and Identifying Saussurea involucrata by HPLC Coupled with OPLS-DARead the full article
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry publishes research into the methods and instrumentation used in chemical analysis, including spectroscopic, spectrometric and wet chemistry techniques, and their applications in real-world problems.
Chief Editor, Professor Verónica Pino, is based in the Chemistry Department (Analytical Chemistry Division) at Universidad de La Laguna, Spain. Her research involves designing new, smart, sustainable, selective and efficient materials to be used in a wide range of applications.
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Establishment of a UPLC-MS/MS Method for Studying the Effect of Salt-Processing on Tissue Distribution of Twelve Major Bioactive Components of Qing’e Pills in Rats
Qing’e pills is clinically used for treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in China. Eucommiae Cortex and Psoraleae Fructus are the main herbs of Qing’e pills and are both required to be salt-processed. In order to study the influence of salt-processing on the tissue distribution of Qing’e pills, a UPLC-MS/MS method was established for studying the tissue distribution of 12 main bioactive ingredients of Qing’e pills in rats. The linear relationships of the 12 compounds in each tissue were good. The method was fully validated for its selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, matrix effect, and extraction recovery. Then, the validated method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of the 12 chemical components in Qing’e pills in tissues for the first time. Areas under the curve (AUC) results showed that, except for pinoresinol diglucoside, psoralen, and isopsoralen, the distribution of the other components was increased in the kidney, uterus, ovary, and testes. Relative targeting efficiency (RTE) results showed that all 12 chemical components targeted the kidney and sexual organs. The results indicated that the Eucommiae Cortex and Psoraleae Fructus after salt-processing could significantly increase the distribution of components to the kidney and generative organs.
Tracing the Geographical Origins of Dendrobe (Dendrobium spp.) by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Sensor Combined with Porphyrin and Chemometrics
Dendrobe (Dendrobium spp.) is a traditional medicinal and edible food, which is rich in nutrients and contains biologically active metabolites. The quality and price of dendrobe are related to its geographical origins, and high quality dendrobe is often imitated by low quality dendrobe in the market. In this work, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy sensor combined with porphyrin and chemometrics was used to distinguish 360 dendrobe samples from twelve different geographical origins. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) was used to study the sensing performance of traditional NIR and tera-(4-methoxyphenyl)-porphyrin (TMPP)-NIR on the identification of dendrobe origin. In the PLSDA model, the recognition rate of the training and prediction set of the TMPP-NIR could reach 100%, which was higher than the 91.85% and 91.34% of traditional NIR. And the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the TMPP-NIR sensor are all 1.00. The mechanism of TMPP improving the specificity of NIR spectroscopy should be related to the π-π conjugated system and the methoxy groups of TMPP interact with the chemical components of dendrobe. This study reflected that NIR spectrum with TMPP sensor was an effective approach for identifying the geographic origin of dendrobe.
Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction as a Promising Technique for Fast Separation of Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Ionic Species: A Review of Recent Advances
The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a wide variety of industrial as well as medical sectors is indisputable. This leads to a new concern about their presence in various environmental compartments. Since their negative effect and potential toxicity impact have been confirmed, analytical chemists focus on the development of different procedures for their reliable detection, identification, characterization, and quantification, not only in homogenous and simple matrices but also in complex environmental matrices. However, nanoparticles and their ionic species can coexist and their toxicity may differ; therefore, novel analytical approaches are necessary to monitor not only the nanoparticles but also their ionic species. The aim of this article is to bring a review of recent works where magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedures in connection with spectrometric methods were used for separation/preconcentration and quantification of (1) silver and gold ions in various environmental samples, (2) AgNPs and AuNPs in real water samples in the presence of various coexisting ions, and (3) both species (it means Ag ions and AgNPs; Au ions and AuNPs) in real water samples. The results presented herein show the great analytical potential of MSPE procedures in connection with spectrometric methods used in these fields and can be helpful in guiding analytical chemists who aim to work on this subject.
Determination of Antioxidant 264 in the Butyl Rubber Stopper and the Compatibility with Recombinant Potent Antitumor and Antivirus Protein Injection
Objective. To establish a method for extraction and determination of antioxidant 264 (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) in the brominated butyl rubber stopper for injection and migration study in recombinant potent antitumor and antivirus protein injection (Novaferon). Methods. Dichloromethane-ethanol was adopted as the extraction solvent during the process of reflux extraction of antioxidant 264 in the brominated butyl rubber stopper. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of the migration of antioxidant 264 to Novaferon. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (80 : 20, v/v). The flow rate was 1.5 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. Results. The linearity range was from 4.003 to 200.150 μg/mL (r2 = 0.99996), and the average recovery of antioxidant 264 was 97.8%. The applicability of the methodology was good, which can be used for the determination of antioxidant 264. The results indicated that antioxidant 264 was not detected in Novaferon after the accelerated test and three months of long-term test. Conclusion. The established validated method in this study can be used for the determination of antioxidant 264 in the rubber stopper, and the brominated butyl rubber stopper has good compatibility with Novaferon.
Removal of Heavy Metal Ion Using Polymer-Functionalized Activated Carbon: Aspects of Environmental Economic and Chemistry Education
Numerous countries have shown signs of environmental pollution to prioritize economic growth and benefits, leading to seriously contaminated waters. This work indicated the method to synthesize a green material, which could remove contaminants to protect the natural environment. The porosity and functionality effects of amine-functionalized activated carbon (AFAC) enhanced the removal of toxic heavy metals (THMs) in aqueous solution. The raw activated carbon (RAC) was thermally modified with ultrahigh pure nitrogen (UHPN) at 500°C and 1000°C and then amine-functionalized with coupling agent of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS). They were denoted as AFAC-5 and AFAC-10, respectively. The data showed an enhanced metal adsorption capacity of the AFACs, because the modification produced more desired porosity and increased amine functional groups. AFAC-10, modified at a higher temperature, showed much higher THM adsorption capacity than AFAC-5, modified at a lower temperature, and RAC. The adsorption capacity decreased in the following order: Ni > Cd > Zn, which was in good agreement with the increasing electronegativity and ionic potential and the decreasing atomic radius. The maximum THM adsorption capacity of AFAC-10 for Ni, Cd, and Zn was 242.5, 226.9, and 204.3 mg/g, respectively.
Miniaturized Fluorimetric Method for Quantification of Zinc in Dry Dog Food
Zinc is an essential trace element for animals in several biological processes, particularly in energy production, and it is acquired from food ingestion. In this context, a microplate-based fluorimetric assay was developed for simple, fast, and low-cost determination of zinc in pet food using 2,2′-((4-(2,7-difluoro-3,6-dihydroxy-4aH-xanthen-9-yl)-3-methoxyphenyl)azanediyl)diacetic acid (FluoZin-1) as fluorescent probe. Several aspects were studied, namely, the stability of the fluorescent product over time, the FluoZin-1 concentration, and the pH of reaction media. The developed methodology provided a limit of detection of 1 μg L−1 in sample acid digests, with a working range of 10 to 200 μg L−1, corresponding to 100–2000 mg of Zn per kg of dry dog food samples. Intraday repeatability and interday repeatability were assessed, with relative standard deviation values < 3.4% (100 μg L−1) and <11.7% (10 μg L−1). Sample analysis indicated that the proposed fluorimetric assay provided results consistent with ICP-MS analysis. These results demonstrated that the developed assay can be used for rapid determination of zinc in dry dog food.