Bioguided Isolation and Structure Identification of Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Inhibitors from Drynariae RhizomeRead the full article
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry publishes research into the methods and instrumentation used in chemical analysis, including spectroscopic, spectrometric and wet chemistry techniques, and their applications in real-world problems.
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Simultaneous Determination of Malachite Green, Chloramphenicols, Sulfonamides, and Fluoroquinolones Residues in Fish by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
A fast-analytical method using simplified extraction has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 42 compounds from 4 different classes of veterinary drugs (amphenicols, triphenylmethane, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamides) in fish by reverse phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The selection of extraction reagents was optimized using different types of microfiltration membrane, mobile phase, and LC column. Samples were extracted using 0.4% hydrochloric acid in acetonitrile and ethyl acetate and then were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction Cleanert Alumina N columns (500 mg) and Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges. The chromatographic separation was performed on a XR-ODS C8 column using a mobile phase of (A) 0.1% formic acid and 2 mM ammonium acetate and (B) 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.25 mL·min−1. The results indicated 67.7–112.8% recovery of 42 compounds with an intra- and interday relative standard deviations less than 10%. The limits of quantification for analytes were in the range of 0.3–1.0 μg kg−1 for samples which were satisfactory to support future surveillance monitoring. The method applicability was checked by analyzing 30 fish samples collected from local markets. Two fish samples surpassed the established MRL of 100 μg kg−1 with values of 104 μg kg−1 and 112 μg kg−1.
Simultaneous Determination of Ternary Mixture of Carboxin, Chlorpyrifos, and Tebuconazole Residues in Cabbage Samples Using Three Spectrophotometric Methods
Three simple precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods are developed for simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures of carboxin, chlorpyrifos, and tebuconazole residues in cabbage grown in the experimental field. The first method is a double divisor-ratio spectra derivative that relies on the derivative of ratio spectra and attained through dividing the absorption spectra of the ternary mixture by the sum of standard spectrum of a mixture of two from three components, using methanol as a solvent and measuring CAR at 242 nm, CHL at 236 nm, 276 nm, and 300 nm, and TEB at 226 nm. The second method is a successive derivative of ratio spectra which determined CAR at 256 nm and 258 nm, CHL at 290 nm and 292 nm, and TEB at 226 nm and 228 nm. The third method is a mean centering of ratio spectra where CAR, CHL, and TEB were measured at 306 nm, 280 nm, and 240 nm, respectively. These procedures do not involve any previous separation. The extraction of analytes was carried out by using acetonitrile, and the procedure of purification was fulfilled by dispersive solid-phase extraction with a primary-secondary amine (PSA). The proposed methods showed excellent linearity range for three spectrophotometric methods over the concentration ranges of 1–30 μg/mL, 1–50 μg/mL, and 1–45 μg/mL for carboxin, chlorpyrifos, and tebuconazole, respectively. The analytical characteristics such as detection limit, determination limit, relative standard deviation, and accuracy of the three methods were performed. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.153–0.260 μg/mL for carboxin, 0.137–0.272 μg/mL for chlorpyrifos, and 0.109–0.205 μg/mL for tebuconazole with limits of quantification lower than 0.790, 0.824, and 0.621 μg/mL for CAR, CHL, and TEB, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 87.02% to 94.53% for carboxin, 92.32% to 108.53% for chlorpyrifos, and 87.19% to 98.00% for tebuconazole with relative standard deviations less than 5.91%, 5.99%, and 5.53% in all instances for carboxin, chlorpyrifos, and tebuconazole, respectively. The results obtained from the proposed methods were compared statistically by using one-way ANOVA, and the results revealed that there were no significant differences between three different spectrophotometric methods. The suggested methods can be applied with great success to the simultaneous estimation of carboxin, chlorpyrifos, and tebuconazole residues in cabbage samples.
Lipemia Interferences in Biochemical Tests, Investigating the Efficacy of Different Removal Methods in comparison with Ultracentrifugation as the Gold Standard
Introduction. As a common interferer in clinical chemistry, lipemic specimens could be a source of significant analytical errors. Ultracentrifugation has been by far the only reliable, but an unavailable and expensive, method to eliminate the lipemic effect. Materials and Methods. Among the daily samples, those with triglyceride >400 mg/dL (4.6 mmol/L) and also turbid were selected, divided into three groups, based on triglyceride concentration, and three pooled serums were made for each group. Then all pooled serums were investigated by using a DIRUI biochemistry analyzer CS-800 for routine chemistry tests in different methods including direct measurement, serum blank, serum dilution, and measurement after ultracentrifugation. Results. According to our study, there were significant differences before and after ultracentrifugation in all lipemic levels and for all parameters except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, and uric acid. Based on allowable inaccuracy for each parameter, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), urea, and chloride are being influenced by all lipemic degree and neither serum dilution nor using serum blank is as effective as ultracentrifuge for elimination. Serum blank was a proper method of lipid removal for the measurement of glucose. Conclusion. Lipemia is a well-known interferer in clinical chemistry. One cannot avoid lipemia, but fortunately, severe lipemia is a rare phenomenon in the laboratory, and for assessment of some analytes in a lower degree of lipemia, use of serum blank eliminates the need for ultracentrifuge.
Classification Modeling Method for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Tobacco Based on Multimodal Convolution Neural Networks
The origin of tobacco is the most important factor in determining the style characteristics and intrinsic quality of tobacco. There are many applications for the identification of tobacco origin by near-infrared spectroscopy. In order to improve the accuracy of the tobacco origin classification, a near-infrared spectrum (NIRS) identification method based on multimodal convolutional neural networks (CNN) was proposed, taking advantage of the strong feature extraction ability of the CNN. Firstly, the one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1-D CNN) is used to extract and combine the pattern features of one-dimensional NIRS data, and then the extracted features are used for classification. Secondly, the one-dimensional NIRS data are converted into two-dimensional spectral images, and the structure features are extracted from two-dimensional spectral images by the two-dimensional convolutional neural network (2-D CNN) method. The classification is performed by the combination of global and local training features. Finally, the influences of different network structure parameters on model identification performance are studied, and the optimal CNN models are selected and compared. The multimodal NIR-CNN identification models of tobacco origin were established by using NIRS of 5,200 tobacco samples from 10 major tobacco producing provinces in China and 3 foreign countries. The classification accuracy of 1-D CNN and 2-D CNN models was 93.15% and 93.05%, respectively, which was better than the traditional PLS-DA method. The experimental results show that the application of 1-D CNN and 2-D CNN can accurately and reliably distinguish the NIRS data, and it can be developed into a new rapid identification method of tobacco origin, which has an important promotion value.
Simultaneous Determination of Drugs Affecting Central Nervous System (CNS) in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS)
The quality of medications is important to maintain the overall health care of patients. This study aims to develop and validate a spectrophotometric method using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) with correlation constraint for simultaneous resolution and quantification of selected drugs affecting the central nervous system (imipramine, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and phenytoin) in different pharmaceutical dosage forms. Figures of merit such as root-mean-square error of prediction, bias, standard error of prediction, and relative error of prediction for the developed method were calculated. High values of correlation coefficients ranged between 0.9993 and 0.9998 reflected high predictive ability of the developed method. The results are linear in the concentration range of 0.3–5 μg/mL for carbamazepine, 0.3–15 μg/mL for chlorpromazine, 0.5–10 μg/mL for haloperidol, 0.5–10 μg/mL for imipramine, and 3–20 μg/mL for phenytoin. The optimized method was successfully applied for the analysis of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical products without any separation step. The optimized method was also compared with a reported HPLC method using Student’s t test and F ratio at 95% confidence level, and the results showed no significant difference regarding accuracy and precision. The proposed chemometric method is fast, reliable, and cost-effective and can be used as an eco-friendly alternative to chromatographic techniques for the analysis of the studied drugs in commercial pharmaceutical products.
Effects of the Salt-Processing Method on the Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of Orally Administered Morinda officinalis How. Extract
Salt processing, which involves steaming with salt water, directs herbs into the kidney channel. After being salt processed, kidney invigorating effects occur. However, the underlying mechanism of this method remains elusive. The compounds monotropein, rubiadin, and rubiadin 1-methyl ether are the major effective components of Morinda officinalis How. To clarify the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of these three compounds, we employed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to determine the contents of the three components in rat plasma and tissues. Separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm, Waters). Formic acid aqueous solution (0.1%; A) and acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid; B) were used as the mobile phase system with a programmed elution of 0∼5 min with 70% A and then 5∼7 min with 60% A. All analytes were measured with optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ion mode. Geniposide and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone were used as the internal standards (IS). The linear ranges were 1.2∼190, 1.3∼510, and 0.047∼37.5 μg/mL, respectively. Compared with the Morinda officinalis without wood (MO) group, the Cmax and AUC0-t parameters of rubiadin and rubiadin 1-methyl ether elevated remarkably for the salt-processed Morinda officinalis (SMO) groups, which indicates that steaming by salt could increase the bioavailability of rubiadin and rubiadin 1-methyl ether. The Tmax for monotropein is shorter (0.5 h) in SMO groups than that in MO group, which means that monotropein was quickly absorbed in the SMO extract. Moreover, the contents of three compounds in the small intestine were the highest.