Simultaneous Determination of Mineral Nutrients and Toxic Metals in M. stenopetala from Southern Ethiopia: A Comparative Study of Three Cultivating Areas Using MP-AESRead the full article
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry publishes research into the methods and instrumentation used in chemical analysis, including spectroscopic, spectrometric and wet chemistry techniques, and their applications in real-world problems.
Chief Editor, Dr. María José Trujillo-Rodríguez, is based in the Chemistry Department (Analytical Chemistry Division) at Universidad de La Laguna, Spain.
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Simultaneous Preconcentration of Fast Green FCF and Rhodamine B Using Deep Eutectic Solvent and Determination via High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography
The aim of the current investigation is the development of a green, quick, easy, and accurate method for simultaneous preconcentration of fast green FCF (FG) and rhodamine B (Rh B) using a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Then, the high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique was used for the determination of analytes. Decanoic acid and tetrabutylammonium bromide were chosen as the components of DES. HPTLC analysis was performed on an aluminum plate silica gel 60 F254. Methanol-ammonia and ethyl acetate were selected as the mobile phase. Scanning of the plates was accomplished by scanner 3. Effective parameters on the preconcentration process such as concentration of salt, volume of DES, stirrer time, and pH were investigated via central composite design (CCD). Data validation demonstrated good repeatability. The limit of detection for FG and Rh B was obtained as 0.08 and 0.01 µg·mL−1, respectively. The enrichment factor for FG and Rh B was achieved as 7.43 and 10.77, respectively. The linear ranges for FG and Rh B were acquired as 0.10–1.20 and 0.05–1.20 µg·mL−1, respectively. The preconcentration factor for both analytes was 21.66. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for the quantitation of FG and Rh B in pastille and lipstick.
Characterization of the Active Ingredient and Prediction of the Potential Mechanism of Dahuoluo Pill via Mass Spectrometry with the Network Pharmacology Method
The Dahuoluo pill (DHLP) is a classic Chinese patent medicine used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other conditions. However, there has been no research on the chemical components of DHLP and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis. Hence, we analysed the chemical components of DHLP and the DHLP components absorbed in blood by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-Q-exactive-orbitrap-mass spectrometry. We then used network pharmacology to predict the underlying mechanisms by which DHLP ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis. We identified 153 chemical compounds from DHLP, together with 27 prototype components absorbed in blood. We selected 48 of these compounds as potential active ingredients to explore the mechanism. These compounds are related to 88 significant pathways, which are linked to 18 core targets. This study preliminarily reveals the potential mechanisms by which DHLP ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis and provides a basis for further evaluation of the drug’s efficacy.
Luminescent Probe Based on Terbium-Carbon Quantum Dots for the Quantification of Imidacloprid in Caneberries
We propose a modification of terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) by means of the introduction of nanoparticles to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical methods. TSL detection is usually based on the complexation between fluorescent organic compounds (the analytes) and terbium. The organic compound is then excited, and, after an energy transfer towards terbium, the latter emits the luminescence signal. Here, the modification consists of the introduction of nanoparticles (carbon quantum dots, CQDs) into the system. The carboxylic groups of CQDs react with terbium, providing an interesting time-resolved luminescence probe. We applied this system for the determination of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (IMID). When IMID was introduced in the terbium-CQDs system, the luminescent signal (λexc/λem of 256/545 nm) was quenched, proportionally to IMID concentration in the range of 100–2500 ng·mL−1, obtaining a limit of detection of 30 ng·mL−1. A method detection limit of 0.9 mg·kg−1 was reached in caneberries, thus complying with the maximum residue level of 5 mg·kg−1 established by Codex Alimentarius. We performed recovery experiments in caneberries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, and mulberries), obtaining recovery yields close to 100% in all cases. These results show that the use of terbium ions-nanoparticles luminescence probes can be useful for screening purposes in quality control laboratories.
Classification of Vietnamese Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) Products Using Statistical Algorithms Based on ICP/MS Data: A Study of Food Categorization
Fingerprinting techniques, which utilize the unique chemical and physical properties of food samples, have emerged as a promising approach for food authentication and traceability. Recent studies have demonstrated significant advancements in food authentication through the use of fingerprinting methods, such as multivariate statistical analysis techniques applied to trace elements and isotope ratios. However, further research is required to optimize these methods and ensure their validity and reliability in real-world applications. In this study, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analytical method was employed to determine the content of 21 elements in 300 cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) samples from 5 brands. Multivariate statistical methods, such as principal components analysis (PCA), were employed to analyze the data obtained and establish the provenance of the cashew nuts. While cashew nuts are widely marketed in many countries, no universal method has been utilized to differentiate the origin of these nuts. Our study represents the initial step in identifying the geographical origin of commercial cashew nuts marketed in Vietnam. The analysis showed significant differences in the means of 21 of the 40 analyzed elements among the cashew nut samples from the 5 brands, including 7Li, 11B, 24Mg, 27Al, 44Ca, 48Ti, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, 57Fe, 60Ni, 63Cu, 66Zn, 93Nb, 98Mo, 111Cd, 115In, 121Sb, 138Ba, 208Pb, and 209Bi. The PCA analysis indicated that the cashew nut samples can be accurately classified according to their original locations. This research serves as a prerequisite for future studies involving the combination of elemental composition analysis with statistical classification methods for the accurate establishment of cashew nut provenance, which involves the identification of key markers for the original discrimination of cashew nuts.
Environmental Sample Stability for Pharmaceutical Compound Analysis: Handling and Preservation Recommendations
Efficient and resilient techniques for handling samples are essential for detecting pharmaceutical compounds in the environment. This study explores a method for preserving water samples during transport before quantitative analysis. The study investigates the stability of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), acetaminophen (ACM), oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and trimethoprim (TMP) after preconcentration within solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Through various experiments involving different holding times and storage temperatures, it was determined that four pharmaceutical compounds remained stable when stored for a month at 4°C and for six months when stored at −18°C in darkness. Storing these compounds in SPE cartridges at −18°C seemed effective in preserving them for extended periods. In addition, ACM, TMP, OTC, EE2, and SMX remained stable for three days at room temperature. These findings establish guidelines for appropriate storage and handling practices of pharmaceutical compounds preconcentrated from aqueous environmental samples using SPE.
Evaluation of Dioxin/Furan and Elements in Poultry from Zarqa Governorate, Jordan
This study is the first to determine the concentration for 17 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and element contamination in poultry that is close to petroleum refinery at Al-Hashemiya Municipality, Zarqa Governorate, Jordan. Ten different samples (chicken) were collected to cover ten different locations of poultry farms in Al-Hashemiya Municipality. These locations are considered polluted areas as a result of exhaust gases produced from the refinery. The 17 PCDD/Fs congeners and elements of Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu, Se, Hg, Cr, and Ni were determined for three parts of each sample (liver, muscle, and gizzard). All samples were analyzed for PCDD/Fs after a Soxhlet extraction procedure and cleanup by column chromatography; then, all compounds were identified and determined using GC-MS techniques. The elements were analyzed after digestion and measured using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and validated with the Lab Mix24 RM NCS ZC73016 reference material. The highest total sum concentration of PCDD/Fs was found in liver samples to be 214.07 ng/kg (dry weight), while the highest sum of toxicity equivalent to PCDD/Fs of 22.54 ng TEQ/kg was found in gizzard samples. For element concentrations, the highest total sum of 16.89 mg/kg (dry weight) was found in liver samples. The concentration level of the elements of Se, Hg, Cr, and Ni for all parts of the chicken was within an acceptable range according to Jordanian standards and therefore the measured level of heavy and trace elements in the poultry samples (chicken) does not pose a danger to public health. The chickens found in poultry farms near the refinery are more likely to contain a higher concentration of PCDD/Fs congeners due to exhaust gas exposure.