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Journal of Automatic Chemistry
Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 36-39

Design and operation of an autosampler controlled flow-injection preconcentration system for lead determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

1Chemistry Department, University of Technology, Leicestershire, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
2P.S. Analytical Ltd, Arthur House, Unit B4, Chaucer Business Park, Watery Lane, Kemsing, Kent, Sevenoaks TN15 6QY, UK

Copyright © 1989 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Flow-injection manifolds are described which allow the preconcentration of lead for flame atomic absorption determinations, using columns contained within the sample loop of an injection valve. An interface was designed which allowed the valves and pump in the system to be controlled by an autosampler which enabled precise timing of preconcentration and elution steps. The effects of sample flow rate, buffer pH and buffer type for preconcentration and eluent concentration and flow rate were investigated in order to obtain optimum performance of the system. A 50-times improvement in detection limits over conventional sample introduction was obtained for a sample volume of approximately 12 ml, preconcentrated for 150 s. The injection of eluent, as opposed to the use of a continuously flowing eluent stream, enabled this reagent to be conserved.