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Journal of Automatic Chemistry
Volume 16 (1994), Issue 5, Pages 211-218

Automation of environmental ELISAs

1Hamilton Company, 4970 Energy Way, Reno, NV 89502, USA
2Quantix Systems, 2611 Branch Pike, Cinnaminson, NJ 08077, USA
3Midwest Research Institute, 625-B Clyde Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA

Copyright © 1994 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


ELISAs for pesticides and herbicides in environmental and agricultural samples are becoming very important in screening applications [1-3]. Traditional chromatographic methods are expensive and results need long turnaround times, making them incompatible with rapid on-site decision making. ELISA methods have been shown to meet or exceed the performance of gas chromatography—they offer rapid low-cost analysis, thereby increasing the frequency of sampling and enhancing data quality. Automated ELISA workstations allow the full benefit of these kits to be realized. Sample preparation, reagent pipetting, incubation, and photometric evaluation can be performed without user intervention. Reliability is increased through the elimination of operator error, better accuracy and precision, and often higher speed. Much larger batch sizes are possible and these systems can provide sample tracking with report generation for documentation requirements. In this paper the manual procedures and ELISA methods are compared and some critical aspects of automating these ELISA kits are discussed.