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Journal of Automatic Chemistry
Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 33-38

An automated system for liquid-liquid extraction in monosegmented flow analysis

Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970, Brazil

Copyright © 1997 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An automated system to perform liquid-liquid extraction in monosegmented flow analysis is described. The system is controlled by a microcomputer that can track the localization of the aqueous monosegmented sample in the manifold. Optical switches are employed to sense the gas-liquid interface of the air bubbles that define the monosegment. The logical level changes, generated by the switches, are flagged by the computer through a home-made interface that also contains the analogue-to-digital converter for signal acquisition. The sequence of operations, necessary for a single extraction or for concentration of the analyte in the organic phase, is triggered by these logical transitions. The system was evaluated for extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and concentration of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions at pH 9.9 (NH3/NH4Cl buffer) into chloroform containing PAN (1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol) . The results show a mean repeatability of 3% (rsd) for a 2.0 mg l-1 Cd(II) solution and a linear increase of the concentration factor for a 0.5mg l-1 Cd(II) solution observed for up to nine extraction cycles.