Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry

Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry / 2006 / Article

Open Access

Volume 2006 |Article ID 47627 | 6 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/JAMMC/2006/47627

Multiparametric Flow System for the Automated Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Large-Volume Parenteral Solutions and Concentrated Hemodialysis Solutions

Received31 Jan 2006
Revised31 May 2006
Accepted05 Jun 2006
Published03 Sep 2006

Abstract

A multiparametric flow system based on multicommutation and binary sampling has been designed for the automated determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. The goal was to obtain a computer-controlled system capable of determining the four metals without extensive modifications. The system involved the use of five solenoid valves under software control, allowing the establishment of the appropriate flow conditions for each analyte, that is, sample size, dilution, reagent addition, and so forth. Detection was carried out by either flame atomic emission spectrometry (sodium, potassium) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (calcium, magnesium). The influence of several operating parameters was studied. Validation was carried out by analyzing artificial samples. Figures of merit obtained include linearity, accuracy, precision, and sampling frequency. Linearity was satisfactory: sodium, r2>0.999 (0.53.5 g/L), potassium, r2>0.996 (50–150 mg/L), calcium, r2>0.999 (30–120 mg/L), and magnesium, r2>0.999 (20–40 mg/L). Precision (sr, %, n=5) was better than 2.1%, and accuracy (evaluated through recovery assays) was in the range of 99.8%–101.0% (sodium), 100.8102.5% (potassium), 97.3%–101.3% (calcium), and 97.1%–99.8% (magnesium). Sampling frequencies (h1) were 70 (sodium), 75 (potassium), 70 (calcium), and 58 (magnesium). According to the results obtained, the use of an automated multiparametric system based on multicommutation offers several advantages for the quality control of large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions.

References

  1. United States Pharmacopeia, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, Md, USA, 26th Revision, 2003.
  2. British Pharmacopoeia (digital version). TSO, London, UK, 2002.
  3. P. B. Stockwell, Automatic Chemical Analysis, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1996.
  4. J. Ruzicka and E. Hansen, Flow Injection Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1988.
  5. M. Trojanowicz, Flow Injection Analysis: Instrumentation and Applications, World Scientific, Singapore, Republic of Singapore, 2000.
  6. J. Martínez Calatayud, Flow Injection Analysis of Pharmaceuticals; Automation in the Laboratory, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 1996.
  7. I. Dol, G. Espínola, and M. Knochen, “Automatic determination of metals in parenteral solutions by FIA-AS,” Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  8. M. Catalá Icardo, J. V. García Mateo, and J. Martínez Calatayud, “Multicommutation as a powerful new analytical tool,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 366–378, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. F. R. P. Rocha, B. F. Reis, E. A. G. Zagatto, J. L. F. C. Lima, R. A. S. Lapa, and J. L. M. Santos, “Multicommutation in flow analysis: concepts, applications and trends,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 468, no. 1, pp. 119–131, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. M. Knochen, M. Pistón, L. Salvarrey, and I. Dol, “A multicommuted flow system for the determination of dextrose in parenteral and hemodialysis concentrate solutions,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 823–828, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. B. F. Reis, M. F. Giné, E. A. G. Zagatto, J. L. F. C. Lima, and R. A. Lapa, “Multicommutation in flow analysis. Part 1. Binary sampling: concepts, instrumentation and spectrophotometric determination of iron in plant digests,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 293, no. 1-2, pp. 129–138, 1994. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2006 Mariela Pistón et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

0 Views | 0 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder
 Sign up for content alertsSign up