Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2012, Article ID 947836, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/947836
Research Article

A Validated Reverse Phase HPLC Analytical Method for Quantitation of Glycoalkaloids in Solanum lycocarpum and Its Extracts

1Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2Arbor Therapeutics, LLC, 145 County Road 245, Etta, MS 38627, USA

Received 13 November 2011; Revised 19 January 2012; Accepted 19 January 2012

Academic Editor: Hassan Y. Aboul Enein

Copyright © 2012 Renata Fabiane Jorge Tiossi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Vieira Jr., P. M. Ferreira, L. G. Matos et al., “Anti-inflammatory effect of Solanum lycocarpum fruits,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 892–896, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. M. Oliveira Jr., C. D. Santos, C. M. P. Abreu, A. D. Corrêa, and J. Z. L. Santos, “Alterações pós-colheita da “Fruta-de-Lobo” (Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil.) durante o amadurecimento: Análises físico-químicas, químicas e enzimáticas,” Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 410–413, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. M. Harrison, “Steroidal alkaloids,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 139–147, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  4. J. T. Blankemeyer, M. L. McWilliams, J. R. Rayburn, M. Weissenberg, and M. Friedman, “Developmental toxicology of solamargine and solasonine glycoalkaloids in frog embryos,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 383–389, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Goswami, R. Kotoky, R. C. Rastogi, and A. C. Ghosh, “A one-pot efficient process for 16-dehydropregnenolone acetate,” Organic Process Research and Development, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 306–308, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Schwarz, E. Pinto, M. Haraguchi, C. A. De Oliveira, M. M. Bernardi, and H. D. S. Spinosa, “Phytochemical study of Solanum lycocarpum (St. Hil) unripe fruit and its effects on rat gestation,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1025–1028, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Yoshikawa, S. Nakamura, K. Ozaki, A. Kumahara, T. Morikawa, and H. Matsuda, “Structures of steroidal alkaloid oligoglycosides, robeneosides A and B, and antidiabetogenic constituents from the Brazilian medicinal plant Solarium lycocarpum,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 210–214, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. M. Fewell, J. G. Roddick, and M. Weissenberg, “Interactions between the glycoalkaloids solasonine and solamarrgine in relation to inhibition of fungal growth,” Phytochemistry, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1007–1011, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. A. Hall, T. Hobby, and M. Cipollini, “Efficacy and mechanisms of α-solasonine- and α-solamargine- induced cytolysis on two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2405–2416, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. E. Cham, “Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides specifically bind cancer cell receptors and induce apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment for skin cancer and hope for internal cancers,” Research in Biological Sciences, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 503–514, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  11. K. W. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. P. Li et al., “Anticancer activity evaluation of the Solanum glycoalkaloid solamargine: triggering apoptosis in human hepatoma cells,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 1865–1873, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Punjabi, L. J. Cook, P. Kersey, R. Marks, and R. Cerio, “Solasodine glycoalkaloids: a novel topical therapy for basal cell carcinoma. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, multicenter study,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 78–82, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. E. Cham and B. Daunter, “Solasodine glycosides. Selective cytotoxicity for cancer cells and inhibition of cytotoxicity by rhamnose in mice with sarcoma 180,” Cancer Letters, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 221–225, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. T. Henriques, R. P. Limberger, V. A. Kerber, and P. R. H. Moreno, “Alcalóides: generalidades e aspectos básicos,” in Pharmacognosy: From Plant to Drug, C. M. O. Simões, E. P. Schenkel, G. Gosmann, J. C . P. Mello, L. A. Mentz, and P. R. Petrovick, Eds., p. 13, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 5th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  15. F. J. A. Matos, Introduction to Experimental Phytochemistry, Edições UFC, Fortaleza, Brazil, 2nd edition, 1997.
  16. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis, Ash, Ash Insoluble in Hydrochloric Acid, Arlington, Tex, USA, Association of Official Analytical Chemists-AOAC, 16th edition, 1995.
  17. M. Ribani, C. B. Grespan Bottoli, C. H. Collins, I. C. S. Fontes Jardim, and L. F. Costa Melo, “Validation for chromatographic and electrophoretic methods,” Quimica Nova, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 771–780, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. ANVISA—Sanitary Surveillance Agency, Resolution No. 899, Guide for validation of analytical and bioanalytical methods, 2010, http://www.anvisa.gov.br/legis/resol/2003/re/899_03re.htm.
  19. ICH—International Conference on Harmonization, of Technical Requirements for registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Topic Q2 (R1), Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.
  20. M. Ribani, C. H. Collins, and C. B. G. Bottoli, “Validation of chromatographic methods: evaluation of detection and quantification limits in the determination of impurities in omeprazole,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1156, no. 1-2, pp. 201–205, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. INMETRO—National Institute of Metrology CGCRE DOQ-02-008-Revision, Guidelines for validation of analytical and bioanalytical, 2010, http://www.inmetro.gov.br/Sidoq/Arquivos/CGCRE/DOQ/DOQ-CGCRE-8_02.pdf.
  22. M. G. F. Araújo, M. C. Galeane, A. D. Castro et al., “Pharmacognostical evaluation of fruits of Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hill. (Solanaceae),” Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 248–253, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Nakamura, M. Hongo, S. Sugimoto, H. Matsuda, and M. Yoshikawa, “Steroidal saponins and pseudoalkaloid oligoglycoside from Brazilian natural medicine, “fruta do lobo” (fruit of Solanum lycocarpum),” Phytochemistry, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 1565–1572, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. R. Farias, “Assessment of quality of raw vegetables,” in Pharmacognosy: From Plant to Drug, C. M. O. Simões et al., Ed., p. 263, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 5th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  25. Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, Atheneu, São Paulo, Brazil, 4th edition, 1988.
  26. J. P. B. Sousa, A. P. S. Brancalion, A. B. Souza et al., “Validation of a gas chromatographic method to quantify sesquiterpenes in copaiba oils,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 653–659, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. K. Shanker, S. Gupta, P. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, S. C. Singh, and M. M. Gupta, “Simultaneous determination of three steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum xanthocarpum by high performance thin layer chromatography,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 497–502, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. E. Cham and L. Wilson, “HPLC of glycoalkaloids from Solanum sodomaeum,” Planta Medica, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. C. Sánchez-Mata, W. E. Yokoyama, Y. J. Hong, and J. Prohens, “α-Solasonine and α-solamargine contents of gboma (solanum macrocarpon l.) and scarlet (solanum aethiopicum l.) eggplants,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 5502–5508, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. C. Eldridge and M. E. Hockridge, “High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of Eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum) glycoalkaloids,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1218–1220, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. M. D. Machado, M. C. F. Toledo, and L. C. Garcia, “Effect of light and temperature on the formation of glycoalkaloids in potato tubers,” Food Control, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 503–508, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. V. Chang, A. C. Felício, J. E. D. P. Reis, M. D. O. Guerra, and V. M. Peters, “Fetal toxicity of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 265–269, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. Aminoff, “Talmudic lipectomy,” Harefuah, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 323–325, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. M. Campos, The Perennial Planting: A Reunion with the Nature of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil, 1994.
  35. S. L. Sinden, K. L. Deahl, and B. B. Aulenbach, “Effect of glycoalkaloids and phenolics on potato flavor,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 41, pp. 520–523, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  36. T. Johns and S. L. Keen, “Taste evaluation of potato glycoalkaloids by the Aymara: a case study in human chemical ecology,” Human Ecology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 437–452, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. L. Cipollini and D. J. Levey, “Why are some fruits toxic? Glycoalkaloids in Solanum and fruit choice by vertebrates,” Ecology, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 782–798, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus