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Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 140469, 8 pages
Research Article

Combination of ERG9 Repression and Enzyme Fusion Technology for Improved Production of Amorphadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506004, India
2Department of Zoology, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh 506009, India

Received 31 May 2013; Revised 31 July 2013; Accepted 12 August 2013

Academic Editor: Ravichandra Potumarthi

Copyright © 2013 Rama Raju Baadhe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) MTCC 3157 was selected for combinatorial biosynthesis of plant sesquiterpene amorpha-4,11-diene. Our main objective was to overproduce amorpha 4-11-diene, which is a key precursor molecule of artemisinin (antimalarial drug) produced naturally in plant Artemisia annua through mevalonate pathway. Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) is a common intermediate metabolite of a variety of compounds in the mevalonate pathway of yeast and leads to the production of ergosterols, dolichol and ubiquinone, and so forth. In our studies, FPP converted to amorphadiene (AD) by expressing heterologous amorphadiene synthase (ADS) in yeast. First, ERG9 (squalane synthase) promoter of yeast was replaced with repressible methionine (MET3) promoter by using bipartite gene fusion method. Further to overcome the loss of the intermediate FPP through competitive pathways in yeast, fusion protein technology was adopted and farnesyldiphosphate synthase (FPPS) of yeast has been coupled with amorphadiene synthase (ADS) of plant origin (Artemisia annua L.) where amorphadiene production was improved by 2-fold (11.2 mg/L) and 4-fold (25.02 mg/L) in yeast strains YCF-002 and YCF-005 compared with control strain YCF-AD (5.5 mg/L), respectively.