Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 769708, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/769708
Review Article

Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment

1Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza 11/12 Street, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
2Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Będzińska 60 Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Received 11 August 2013; Revised 11 December 2013; Accepted 12 December 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editor: Sinem Göktürk

Copyright © 2014 Ewa Olkowska et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Olkowska, Z. Polkowska, and J. Namieśnik, “Analytics of surfactants in the environment: problems and challenges,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 5667–5700, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. F. Tadros, Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2005.
  3. E. Olkowska, M. Ruman, A. Kowalska, and Ż. Polkowska, “Determination of surfactants in environmental samples. Part II. Anionic compounds,” Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 331–342, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. J. Rosen and M. Dahanayake, Industrial Utilization of Surfactants: Principles and Practice, American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, Ill, USA, 2000.
  5. J. Sukhapan and P. Brimblecombe, “Ionic surface active compounds in atmospheric aerosols,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2, pp. 1138–1146, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Olkowska, Z. Polkowska, and J. Namieśnik, “Analytical procedures for the determination of surfactants in environmental samples,” Talanta, vol. 88, pp. 1–13, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. J. Scott and M. N. Jones, “The biodegradation of surfactants in the environment,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1508, no. 1-2, pp. 235–251, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G.-G. Ying, “Fate, behavior and effects of surfactants and their degradation products in the environment,” Environment International, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 417–431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Gonzalez, M. Petrovic, and D. Barcelo, “Advanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods applied to wastewater removal and the fate of surfactants in the environmentTrends in Analytical Chemistry,” vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 116–124, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. L. Berna, J. Ferrer, A. Moreno, D. Prats, and F. Ruiz Bevia, “The fate of LAS in the environment,” Tenside Surfactants Deterg, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 101–107, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Ahel, W. Giger, and M. Koch, “Behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in the aquatic environment—I. Occurrence and transformation in sewage treatment,” Water Research, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1131–1142, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Petrovic and D. Barcelo, in Emerging Organic Pollutants in Wastewaters and Sludges, D. Barcelo, Ed., Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2004.
  13. P. A. Lara-Martín, A. Gómez-Parra, and E. González-Mazo, “Reactivity and fate of synthetic surfactants in aquatic environments,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 684–695, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Petrovic, A. R. Fernández-Alba, F. Borrull, R. M. Marce, E. G. Mazo, and D. Barceló, “Occurrence and distribution of nonionic surfactants, their degradation products, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in coastal waters and sediments in Spain,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. A. Lara-Martin, A. Gomez-Parra, and E. Gonzalez-Mazo, “Sources, transport and reactivity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants in several aquatic ecosystems in SW Spain: a comparative study,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. T. Garcia, E. Campos, F. Munoz, M. Dalmau, and J. Sanchez-Leal, “Adsorption of cationic surfactants on biosolids,” Jornadas del Comite Espanol de la Detergencia, vol. 27, p. 343, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. M. Mann and M. R. Boddy, “Biodegradation of a nonylphenol ethoxylate by the autochthonous microflora in lake water with observations on the influence of light,” Chemosphere, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1361–1369, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Nishiyama, Y. Toshima, and Y. Ikeda, “Biodegradation of alkylmethylammonium salts in activated sludge,” Chemosphere, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 593–603, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Baleux and P. Caumette, “Biodegradation of some cationic surfactants,” Water Research, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 833–841, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. T. García, I. Ribosa, T. Guindulain, J. Sánchez-Leal, and J. Vives-Rego, “Fate and effect of monoalkyl quaternary ammonium surfactants in the aquatic environment,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 169–175, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. D. Swisher, Surfactant Biodegradation, vol. 18 of Surfactant Science Series, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
  22. M. T. García, E. Campos, J. Sánchez-Leal, and I. Ribosa, “Anaerobic degradation and toxicity of commercial cationic surfactants in anaerobic screening tests,” Chemosphere, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 705–710, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. González-Mazo, J. M. Forja, and A. Gómez-Parra, “Fate and distribution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in the littoral environment,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1636–1641, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. A. Perales, M. A. Manzano, D. Sales, and J. A. Quiroga, “Biodegradation kinetics of LAS in river water,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 155–160, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. S. Yadav, D. L. Lawrence, B. A. Nuck, T. W. Federle, and C. A. Reddy, “Biotransformation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: oxidation of alkyl side-chain,” Biodegradation, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 443–453, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. M. Navas, E. González-Mazo, A. Wenzel, A. Gómez-Parra, and H. Segner, “Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and intermediate products from their degradation are not estrogenic,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 880–884, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. O. R. T. Thomas and G. F. White, “Metabolic pathway for the biodegradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate by Pseudomonas s. C12B,” Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 318–327, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. L. George, “Seasonal factors affecting surfactant biodegradation in Antarctic coastal waters: comparison of a polluted and pristine site,” Marine Environmental Research, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 403–415, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. A. Field, T. M. Field, T. Poiger, H. Siegrist, and W. Giger, “Fate of secondary alkane sulfonate surfactants during municipal wastewater treatment,” Water Research, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1301–1307, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. M. Baena-Nogueras, E. González-Mazo, and P. A. Lara-Martín, “Determination and occurrence of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in aquatic environments,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 176, pp. 151–157, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. D. C. Mcavoy, S. D. Dyer, N. J. Fendinger, W. S. Eckhoff, D. L. Lawrence, and W. M. Begley, “Removal of alcohol ethoxylates, alkyl ethoxylate sulfates, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in wastewater treatment,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1705–1711, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. L. Potter, K. Simmons, J. Wu, M. Sanchez-Olvera, P. Kostecki, and E. Calabrese, “Static die-away of a nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in estuarine water samples,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 113–118, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. A. Staples, C. G. Naylor, J. B. Williams, and W. E. Gledhill, “Ultimate biodegradation of alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants and their biodegradation intermediates,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 2450–2455, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Jonkers, T. P. Knepper, and P. De Voogt, “Aerobic biodegration studies of nonylphenol ethoxylates in river water using liquid chromatography—electrospray tandem mass spectrometry,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 335–340, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Yoshimura, “Biodegradation and fish toxicity of nonionic surfactants,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1590–1596, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Giger, P. H. Brunner, and C. Schaffner, “4-Nonylphenol in sewage sludge: accumulation of toxic metabolites from nonionic surfactants,” Science, vol. 225, no. 4662, pp. 623–625, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. L. Ferguson, C. R. Iden, and B. J. Brownawell, “Analysis of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in environmental samples by mixed-mode high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 938, no. 1-2, pp. 79–91, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. Y. Shang, M. G. Ikonomou, and R. W. MacDonald, “Quantitative determination of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in marine sediment using normal-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 849, no. 2, pp. 467–482, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Marcomini, M. Zanette, G. Pojana, and M. J.-F. Suter, “Behavior of aliphatic alcohol polyethoxylates and their metabolites under standardized aerobic biodegradation conditions,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 549–554, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. I. Reznickova, J. Hoffmann, and K. Komarek, “Biodegradation of technical mixtures of oxyethylenated aliphatic alcohols in an aqueous environment,” Chemosphere, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 83–87, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. P. A. Lara-Martin, A. Gomez-Parra, T. Köchling, J. L. Sanz, R. Amils, and E. Gonzalez-Mazo, “Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in coastal marine sedimentsEnvironmental Science and Technology,” vol. 41, pp. 3573–3579, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  42. P. A. Lara-Martin, A. Gomez-Parra, T. Köchling, J. L. Sanz, and E. Gonzalez-Mazo, “Monitoring the primary biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their coproducts in anoxic sediments using liquid chromatography−mass spectrometryEnvironmental Science and Technology,” vol. 41, pp. 3580–3586, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  43. P. A. Lara-Martín, A. Gómez-Parra, J. L. Sanz, and E. González-Mazo, “Anaerobic degradation pathway of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (IAS) in sulfate-reducing marine sediments,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1670–1676, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Vogt and K. Heinig, “Trace analysis of surfactants using chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques,” Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 363, no. 7, pp. 612–618, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Wang, and C. Qiu, “Sample preparation,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1184, no. 1-2, pp. 191–219, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. DIN, 38409-20 German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge, parameters characterizing effects and substances (group H), determination of substances that react with disulfine blue (H 20).
  47. APHA, 5540 C—American Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Method 5540C.
  48. Polish standard: PN-72/C-04550. 03.
  49. E. Olkowska, Ż. Polkowska, and J. Namieśnik, “A solid phase extraction-ion chromatography with conductivity detection procedure for determining cationic surfactants in surface water samples,” Talanta, vol. 116, pp. 210–216, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. A. J. Wilkes, G. Walraven, and J.-M. Talbot, “HPLC analysis of quaternary ammonium surfactants with the evaporative light scattering detector,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 609–613, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  51. M. C. Allgeier, M. A. Nussbaum, and D. S. Risley, “Comparison of an evaporative light-scattering detector and a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector for analyzing compounds lacking a sufficient UV chromophore,” LC-GC North America, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 376–381, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. P. Knepper, P. de Voogt, and D. Barcelo, Analysis and Fate of Surfactants in the Aquatic Environment, Elsevier, 2003.
  53. M. A. Wedyan and M. R. Preston, “The coupling of surface seawater organic nitrogen and the marine aerosol as inferred from enantiomer-specific amino acid analysis,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 37, pp. 8698–8705, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. N. Roslan, N. M. Hanif, M. R. Othman et al., “Surfactants in the sea-surface microlayer and their contribution to atmospheric aerosols around coastal areas of the Malaysian Peninsula,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 1584–1590, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Saouter, C. Pittinger, and T. Feijtel, “Aquatic environmental impact of detergents: from simple to more sophisticated models,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 153–159, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Madsen, B. H. Boyd, D. Nylén, A. R. Pedersen, G. I. Petersen, and S. Flemming, “Environmental Health Assessment of Substances in Household Detergents and Cosmetic Detergent Products Environmental Project No. 615,” Miloprojekt, Danish Environmental Pollution Agency, 2001.
  57. Y. Nomura, K. Ikebukuro, K. Yokoyama et al., “Application of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate biosensor to river water monitoring,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1047–1053, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. Jensen, “Fate and effects of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) in the terrestrial environment,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 226, no. 2-3, pp. 93–111, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. Bliefert, Umweltchemie, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1994.
  60. J. E. Loyo-Rosales, C. P. Rice, and A. Torrents, “Octyl and nonylphenol ethoxylates and carboxylates in wastewater and sediments by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry,” Chemosphere, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 2118–2127, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. C. Hari, R. A. Paruchuri, D. A. Sabatini, and T. C. G. Kibbey, “Effects of pH and cationic and nonionic surfactants on the adsorption of pharmaceutical to a natural aquifer material,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 2592–2598, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G.-G. Ying and R. S. Kookana, “Endocrine disruption: an Australian perspective,” Water, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 53–57, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. C. Dodds, L. Goldberg, W. Lawson, and B. Robinson, “Œstrogenic activity of certain synthetic compounds,” Nature, vol. 141, no. 3562, pp. 247–248, 1938. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. B. Thiele, K. Günther, and M. J. Schwuger, “Alkylphenol ethoxylates: trace analysis and environmental behavior,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 3247–3272, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. C. Mueller and U. H. Kim, “Displacement of estradiol from estrogen receptors by simple alkyl phenols,” Endocrinology, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 1429–1435, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. Jobling, D. Sheahan, J. A. Osborne, P. Matthiessen, and J. P. Sumpter, “Inhibition of testicular growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to estrogenic alkylphenolic chemicals,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 15, p. 194, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  67. A. M. Soto, H. Justicia, J. W. Wray, and C. Sonnenschein, “p-Nonyl-phenol: an estrogenic xenobiotic released from “modified” polystyrene,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 92, pp. 167–173, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. J. Routledge and J. P. Sumpter, “Estrogenic activity of surfactants and some of their degradation products assessed using a recombinant yeast screen,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 15, pp. 241–248, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  69. E. D. Nelson, L. L. McDonell, and J. E. Baker, “Diffusive exchange of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls across the air-water interface of the chesapeake bay,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 32, p. 912, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  70. A. J. Szeri, R. L. Stefan, and J. R. Saylor, “Surfactant scavenging by microbubble clouds: consequences for capillary JR wave damping,” in Fluid Mechanics and the Environment, Lecture Notes in Physics, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  71. R. L. Stefan and A. J. Szeri, “Surfactant scavenging and surface deposition by rising bubbles,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 212, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. R. Saylor, G. B. Smith, and K. A. Flack, “The effect of a surfactant monolayer on the temperature field of a water surface undergoing evaporation,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 43, no. 17, pp. 3073–3086, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. R. Saylor, G. B. Smith, and K. A. Flack, “Infrared imaging of the surface temperature field of water during film spreading,” Physics of Fluids, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 597–602, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. R. Saylor, “The fate of soluble and insoluble surfactant monolayers subjected to drop impacts,” Experiments in Fluids, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 540–547, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. D. J. Kieber and K. Mopper, “Photochemical formation of glyoxylic and pyruvic acids in seawater,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 135–149, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. J. Kieber, X. Z. Xianliang Zhou, and K. Mopper, “Formation of carbonyl compounds from UV-induced photodegradation of humic substances in natural waters: fate of riverine carbon in the sea,” Limnology & Oceanography, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1503–1515, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. K. Mopper, X. Zhou, R. J. Kieber, D. J. Kieber, R. J. Sikorski, and R. D. Jones, “Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic carbon and its impact on the oceanic carbon cycle,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6339, pp. 60–62, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. O. Wurl and J. P. Obbard, “A review of pollutants in the sea-surface microlayer (SML): a unique habitat for marine organisms,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 11-12, pp. 1016–1030, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. Z. Zhang, L. Liu, C. Liu, and W. Cai, “Studies on the sea surface microlayer: II. The layer of sudden change of physical and chemical properties,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 264, no. 1, pp. 148–159, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. M. Stortini, T. Martellini, M. Del Bubba, L. Lepri, G. Capodaglio, and A. Cincinelli, “n-Alkanes, PAHs and surfactants in the sea surface microlayer and sea water samples of the Gerlache Inlet sea (Antarctica),” Microchemical Journal, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. H. I. Comber, T. D. Williams, and K. M. Stewart, “The effects of nonylphenol on Daphnia magna,” Water Research, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 273–276, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. Jobling and J. P. Sumpter, “Detergent components in sewage effluent are weakly oestrogenic to fish: an in vitro study using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 3-4, pp. 361–372, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. Oppo, S. Bellandi, N. Degli Innocenti et al., “Surfactant components of marine organic matter as agents for biogeochemical fractionation and pollutant transport via marine aerosols,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 63, no. 3-4, pp. 235–253, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. G. B. Ellison, A. F. Tuck, and V. Vaida, “Atmospheric processing of organic aerosols,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 11633–11641, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. W. Seidl and G. Hänel, “Surface-active substances on rainwater and atmospheric particles,” Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, vol. 121, no. 5-6, pp. 1077–1093, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. B. Cosovic, P. O. Leko, and Z. Kozaraca, “Rainwater dissolved organic carbon: characterization of surface active substances by electrochemical method,” Electroanalysis, vol. 19, p. 2077, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. I. Taraniuk, A. B. Kostinski, and Y. Rudich, “Enrichment of surface-active compounds in coalescing cloud drops,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 35, no. 19, Article ID L19810, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. G. C. Roberts, P. Artaxo, J. Zhou, E. Swietlicki, and M. O. Andreae, “Sensitivity of CCN spectra on chemical and physical properties of aerosol: a case study from the Amazon Basin,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 107, no. 20, pp. XCXLI–XCXLII, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Tabazadeh, “Organic aggregate formation in aerosols and its impact on the physicochemical properties of atmospheric particles,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 39, no. 30, pp. 5472–5480, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. T. Latif, N. Y. Anuwar, T. Srithawirat, I. S. Razak, and N. A. Ramli, “Composition of levoglucosan and surfactants in atmospheric aerosols from biomass burning,” Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 837–845, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Z. Zhao, Z. Xie, A. Möller et al., “Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 117, pp. 71–77, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  92. M. S. Holt, “Sources of chemical contaminants and routes into the freshwater environment,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. S21–S27, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. B. Thiele, “Surfactants,” in Chromatographic Analysis of the Environment, L. M. L. Nollet, Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  94. J. Cross and E. J. Singer, Cationic Surfactants—Analytical and Biological Evaluation New York:, M. Dekker, 1994.
  95. H. Sütterlin, R. Alexy, A. Coker, and K. Kümmerer, “Mixtures of quaternary ammonium compounds and anionic organic compounds in the aquatic environment: elimination and biodegradability in the closed bottle test monitored by LC–MS/MS,” Chemosphere, vol. 72, no. 3, p. 479, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. S. S. Talmage, “Environmental and human safety of major surfactants: alcohol ethoxylates and alkylphenol ethoxylates,” A Report to the Soap and Detergent Association, Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  97. C. G. Naylor, J. P. Mieure, W. J. Adams et al., “Alkylphenol ethoxylates in the environment,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 695–703, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. E. Martínez-Carballo, C. González-Barreiro, A. Sitka, N. Kreuzinger, S. Scharf, and O. Gans, “Determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Part II. Application to sediment and sludge samples in Austria,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 543–547, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Koner, A. Pal, and A. Adak, “Utilization of silica gel waste for adsorption of cationic surfactant and adsolubilization of organics from textile wastewater: a case study,” Desalination, vol. 276, no. 1–3, pp. 142–147, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. V. M. Leon, M. Saez, E. Gonzalez-Mazo, and A. Gomez-Parra, “Occurrence and distribution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and sulfophenylcarboxylic acids in several Iberian littoral ecosystems,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 288, no. 3, p. 215, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. M. A. Blackburn, S. J. Kirby, and M. J. Waldock, “Concentrations of alkyphenol polyethoxylates entering UK estuaries,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 109–118, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. L. M. Games, J. E. King, and R. J. Larson, “Fate and distribution of a quaternary ammonium surfactant, octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (OTAC), in wastewater treatment,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 483–488, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. M. T. García, E. Campos, J. Sanchez-Leal, and I. Ribosa, “Effect of the alkyl chain length on the anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of quaternary ammonium based surfactants,” Chemosphere, vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 3473–3483, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. S. T. Giolando, R. A. Rapaport, R. J. Larson, T. W. Federle, M. Stalmans, and P. Masscheleyn, “Environmental fate and effects of DEEDMAC: a new rapidly biodegradable cationic surfactant for use in fabric softeners,” Chemosphere, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1067–1083, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. A. Di Corcia, F. Casassa, C. Crescenzi, A. Marcomini, and R. Samperi, “Investigation of the fate of linear alkyl benzenesulfonates and coproducts in a laboratory biodegradation test by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 4112–4118, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. R. J. Larson, “Structure-activity relationships for biodegradation of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1241–1246, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. M. Nielsen, L. N. Britton, C. E. Beall, T. P. Mccormick, and G. L. Russell, “Biodegradation of coproducts of commercial linear akylbenzene sulfonate,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 3397–3404, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. K. Figge and P. Schoberl, “LAS and the application of sewage sludge in agriculture,” Tenside Surfactants Detergents, vol. 26, pp. 122–128, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  109. M. S. Holt, E. Matthijs, and J. Waters, “The concentrations and fate of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate in sludge amended soils,” Water Research, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 749–759, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. J. Waters, M. S. Holt, and E. Matthijs, “Fate of LAS in sludge amended soils,” Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. G. F. White, “Multiple interactions in riverine biofilms—surfactant adsorption, bacterial attachment and biodegradation,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 61–70, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. A. Manzano, J. A. Perales, D. Sales, and J. M. Quiroga, “The effect of temperature on the biodegradation of a nonylphenol polyethoxylate in river water,” Water Research, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2593–2600, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. A. Szymanski, B. Wyrwas, Z. Swit, T. Jaroszynski, and Z. Lukaszewski, “Biodegradation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates in the continuous flow activated sludge test,” Water Research, vol. 34, no. 16, pp. 4101–4109, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. G. Pojana, G. Cassani, and A. Marcomini, “Determination, aerobic biodegradation and environmental occurrence of aliphatic alcohol polyethoxylate sulfates (AES),” International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 729–738, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. L. Kravetz, J. P. Salanitro, P. B. Dorn, and K. F. Guin, “Influence of hydrophobe type and extent of branching on environmental response factors of nonionic surfactants,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 610–618, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. R. D. Vashon and B. S. Schwab, “Mineralization of linear alcohol ethoxylates and linear alcohol ethoxy sulfates at trace concentrations in estuarine waterEnvironmental Science & Technology,” vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 433–436, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  117. E. Olkowska, M. Ruman, A. Kowalska, and Ż. Polkowska, “Determination of surfactants in environmental samples. Part I,” Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  118. E. Olkowska, M. Ruman, A. Kowalska, and Z. Polkowska, “Determination of surfactants in environmental samples. Part III. Non-ionic compounds,” Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 449–461, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  119. E. Olkowska, Ż. Polkowska, and J. Namieśnik, “Występowanie surfaktantów w próbkach środowiskowych,” Wiadomości Chemiczne, no. 9-10, pp. 809–830, 2010. View at Google Scholar