Table 1: Summary of HPLC conditions for sesquiterpene lactones.

SampleExtraction, derivatizationDetected sesquiterpene lactonesDetectionChromatographic conditionsReference

Sandy, clayey, and humic soil(i) Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)
(ii) Supercritical fluid: CO2(iii) Extraction time: 20 minutes
(iv) Precolumn derivatization (0.2% NaOH, 50°C, 30 min, then acidified 0.08 M acetic acid)
ArtemisininUV, 260 nm(i) Column: C18 Bio Wide Pore (25 cm 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Elution type: isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: methanol/acetonitrile/0.9 mM Na2HPO4–3.6 mM NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 7.76) solution (45/10/45 v/v/v)
(v) Injection volume: 20 μL
(vi) Flow rate: 1 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 7.5 min
[154]

A. santonicum L.,
A. taurica Willd.,
A. spicigera K. Koch, 
A. herba-alba Asso, 
A. haussknechtii Boiss.,
A. campestris L., 
A. araratica Krasch., 
A. armeniaca Lam., 
A. austriaca Jacq., and
A. abrotanum L.
(i) Extraction with n-hexane at room temperature for 2 days with a laboratory-scale shaker
(ii) Precolumn derivatization (0.2% NaOH, 50°C, 30 min, then acidified 0.08 M acetic acid)
ArtemisininDAD, 254 nm(i) Column: ACE-5 C18 column (250 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Elution type:  isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: formic acid (0.2% v/v) : acetonitrile (50 : 50 v/v)
(v) Flow rate: 1 mL/min.
(vi) Retention time: 5.58 min
[155]

Artemisia annua L(i) Extraction in Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether (30–60°C) for 6 h
(ii) Precolumn derivatization (0.2% NaOH, 45°C, 30 min, and then acidified 0.08 M acetic acid)
ArtemisininUV, 260 nm(i) Column: RP-C18 silica column (250 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Elution type: isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: methanol/acetonitrile/0.9 mM Na2HPO4–3.6 mM NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 7.76) solution (45/10/45 v/v/v)
(v) Injection volume: 10 μL
(vi) Flow rate: 0.5 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 16.85 min
[156]

A. absinthium leaves(i) Extraction with various solvent types: 100% methanol, 75% methanol, 50% methanol, 25% methanol, 75% acetonitrile in a thermostatic rotary shaker, and various temperatures (30–60°C) for various time intervals
(ii) Precolumn derivatization (0.25% NaOH, 50°C, 1 hour and then being acidified with 0.2 M acetic acid solution)
Anabsinthin and derivatized artemisininDAD, 205 and 258 nm(i) Column: C8 (250 mm 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Flow rate: 1 mL/min
(iv) Elution type: gradient elution: 90% A/10% B, hold for 5 min, to 60% B in the next 13 min
(v) The mobile phase: A: methanol/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (15/85), B: methanol/0.1% TFA (85/15)
(vi) Artemisinin not detected
[157]

A. annua leaves(i) Dipping dried leaves in 100% chloroform, 8 s
(ii) Precolumn derivatization (0.2% NaOH and then acidified with 0.08 M acetic acid solution)
Artemisinin260 nm(i) Column: RP-C18 silica column (250 4.6 mm)
(ii) Elution type:  isocratic
(iii) The mobile phase: methanol/acetonitrile/0.9 mM Na2HPO4–3.6 mM NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 7.76) solution (45/10/45 v/v/v)
(iv) injection volume: 1 μL
[158]

A. annua leaves(i) Solid phase extraction
(ii) Liquid-liquid extraction method
(iii) Purification procedures
ArtemisininIR(i) Column: LC-CN column (25 mm 4 mm 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 35°C
(iii) Elution type:  isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: methanol : water (60 : 40 v/v)
(v) Injection volume: 20 μL
(vi) Flow rate: of 1 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 6.932 min
[159]

A. annuaExtraction by refluxing with hexane at 75°C for 1 hourArtemisininELSD(i) Column: C18-RP (250 mm × 4.0 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: room temperature
(iii) Elution type:  isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: water adjusted to pH 3.0–3.5 with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) : acetonitrile (65 : 35)
(v) Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min
(vi) Retention time: 7.63 min
[138]

A. herba alba and A. monosperma aerial partsExtraction in Soxhlet extractor with methanol at 60°C α, β-Dihydroartemisinin, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde, arteannuin B, dihydroartemisinic acid, dihydroartemisinic alcohol, artemisitene, artemisinin, and artemisinic acidHPLC-DAD (215, 254, 294, and 334 nm), LC-positive mode ESI-MSn(i) Column: C18 column (50 mm 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Elution type: gradient, 0 min—A : B 10 : 90; 36 min—A : B 100 : 0; 40 min—A : B 100 : 0
(iv) The mobile phase: A: methanol, B: 0.2% formic acid
(v) Injection volume: 10 μL
(vi) Flow rate: 0.2 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 12.4 min α-dihydroartemisinin, 12.8 min β-dihydroartemisinin, 15.2 min dihydroartemisinic aldehyde, 15.5 min arteannuin B, 15.7 min dihydroartemisinic acid, 18.8 min dihydroartemisinic alcohol, 36.6 min artemisitene, 37.7 min artemisinin, and 23.7 min artemisinic acid
[160]

A. annua(i) Extracted twice with scintanalyzed toluene in a ultrasonic bath, in ice-cold water, for 30 minutes
(ii) Precolumn derivatization
Artemisinin260 nm(i) Column: C-18 column (15 cm 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Elution type: isocratic
(iii) The mobile phase: 0.01 M sodium phosphate buffer: methanol [55 : 45 (v/v)] pH 7.0
(iv) Flow rate: 1 mL/min
(v) Retention time: 12.0 min
[161]

A. annua leaves Extraction in Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether : n-hexane (2 : 1) for 4 hoursArtemisininDAD, 258 nm(i) Column: C8 (250 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Elution type: gradient, 5 min—70% A: 30% B to 60% B in the next 13 min
(iv) The mobile phase: A: 0.9 mM Na2HPO4, 3.6 mM NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 7.76); B: acetonitrile
(v) Injection volume: 20 μL
(vi) Flow rate: 1 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 6.476 min
[136]

A. annua leaves(i) Sonication with toluene
(ii) Precolumn derivatization (0.2% NaOH, 50°C, 45 min and then acidified 0.2 M acetic acid)
ArtemisininDAD, 258 nm(i) Column SB C18 column (150 4.6 mm) 5 μm
(ii) Elution type: isocratic
(iii) The mobile phase: 45% (v/v) methanol and 55% 0.01 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH7.0)
(iv) Flow rate: 1 mL/min
(v) Retention time: 12 min
[162]

A. annua L leaves, flower buds, stems, and roots(i) Room temperature extraction
(ii) Heat-reflux extraction at 50°C
(iii) Soxhlet extraction at 50°C
(iv) MAE (microwave-assisted extraction)
(v) Solvent: petroleum ether : acetone (4 : 1, v/v)
ArtemisininELSD(i) Column: RP-C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Elution type: isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: water : acetonitrile (40 : 60 v/v)
(v) Injection volume: 10 μL
(vi) Flow rate: 1 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 9 min
[113]

A. annua L Extraction with methanol by sonication, 45 minutesArtemisininLC-MS with SIM(i) Column: ODS3 column (250 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
(ii) Elution type: gradient, 72% B for 6 min, and it was then increased to 100% B in 1 min
(iii) The mobile phase: water (0.1% formic acid) and (B) acetonitrile
(iv) Injection volume: 2 L
(v) Flow rate: 1.2 mL/min
(vi) 265.3
[163]

A. annua seeds, aerial partsExtraction in Soxhlet extractor with methanol, 60°CArtemisininHPLC/DAD
214, 217, 280, and 290 nm
HPLC-positive mode ESI-MS
(i) Column: SB-C18 column (150 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 1.8 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 30°C
(iii) Elution type: gradient, 0 min, A : B 10 : 90; 36 min, A : B 70 : 30; 50 min, A : B 100 : 0; 60 min
(iv) The mobile phase: (A) methanol and (B) 0.2% formic acid
(v) Flow rate: 0.8 mL/min
(vi) Retention time: 35.2 min
[140]

A. annua LMaceration with dichloromethane or hexane, at room temperature, for 72 hoursArtemisininHPLC-DAD (210 nm), HPLC-MS
(API electrospray)
(i) Column: RP-18 column (250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: 26°C
(iii) Elution type: isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: water adjusted to pH 3.2 by formic acid (A), and acetonitrile (B) 50% A : 50% B
(v) Injection volume: 20 μL
(vi) Flow rate: 1.3 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 15.1 min
[153]

A. annua LExtraction with different solvents and mixtures: n-hexane, isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, toluene by maceration, percolation, or
decoction, at low temperatures and vigorous shaking
Artemisinin, arteannuin, and artemisitone RP-HPLC/refraction index(i) Column: RP-C18 column (100 mm 4 mm i.d., 3 μm)
(ii) Column temperature: room temperature
(iii) Elution type:  isocratic
(iv) The mobile phase: methanol (80–90%), water
(v) Injection volume: 100 L
(vi) Flow rate: 0.5 mL/min
(vii) Retention time: 1.7 min (arteannuin), 2 min (artemisinin), and 5.3 min (artemisitone)
[142]