Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Volume 2015, Article ID 948262, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/948262
Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Extracts of the African Medicinal Plant Ximenia caffra

1New Use Agriculture and Natural Plant Products Program, Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers University, 59 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
4National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek, Namibia
5PlantaPhile, 705B Park Avenue, Collingswood, NJ 08108, USA
6Drug Discovery and Development Program, Science, Technology and Innovation Division, Multidisciplinary Research Center University of Namibia, 340 Mandume Ndemufayo Avenue Private Bag Box 13301, Windhoek, Namibia

Received 11 December 2014; Accepted 1 February 2015

Academic Editor: Mengxia Xie

Copyright © 2015 Jing Zhen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B.-E. van Wyk and N. Gericke, People's Plants, Briza Publications, 2000.
  2. A. Cheikhyoussef, M. Shapi, K. Matengu, and H. M. Ashekele, “Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use by traditional healers in Oshikoto region, Namibia,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 7, article 10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B.-E. Van Wyk, “The potential of South African plants in the development of new food and beverage products,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 857–868, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. R. Ndhlala, M. Muchuweti, C. Mupure et al., “Phenolic content and profiles of selected wild fruits of Zimbabwe: Ximenia caffra, Artobotrys brachypetalus and Syzygium cordatum,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1333–1337, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. W. Khumalo, L. Majoko, J. S. Read, and I. Ncube, “Characterisation of some underutilised vegetable oils and their evaluation as starting materials for lipase-catalysed production of cocoa butter equivalents,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 237–244, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Chivandi, B. C. Davidson, and K. H. Erlwanger, “Red sour plum (Ximenia caffra) seed: a potential non-conventional energy and protein source for livestock feeds,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 540–544, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. J. Nair, R. B. Mulaudzi, J. C. Chukwujekwu, F. R. van Heerden, and J. van Staden, “Antigonococcal activity of Ximenia caffra Sond. (Olacaceae) and identification of the active principle,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 86, pp. 111–115, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. B. Mulaudzi, A. R. Ndhlala, M. G. Kulkarni, J. F. Finnie, and J. van Staden, “Antimicrobial properties and phenolic contents of medicinal plants used by the Venda people for conditions related to venereal diseases,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 330–337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. de Wet, V. N. Nzama, and S. F. van Vuuren, “Medicinal plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections by lay people in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 78, pp. 12–20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Fabry, P. O. Okemo, and R. Ansorg, “Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 79–84, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Munodawafa, L. S. Chagonda, and S. R. Moyo, “Antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants,” Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, vol. 3, no. 5-6, pp. 323–330, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. N. H. T. Le, K. E. Malterud, D. Diallo, B. S. Paulsen, C. S. Nergård, and H. Wangensteen, “Bioactive polyphenols in Ximenia americana and the traditional use among Malian healers,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 858–862, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. Erlund, “Review of the flavonoids quercetin, hesperetin, and naringenin. Dietary sources, bioactivities, bioavailability, and epidemiology,” Nutrition Research, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 851–874, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Vauzour, A. Rodriguez-Mateos, G. Corona, M. J. Oruna-Concha, and J. P. E. Spencer, “Polyphenols and human health: prevention of disease and mechanisms of action,” Nutrients, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 1106–1131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E.-Q. Xia, G.-F. Deng, Y.-J. Guo, and H.-B. Li, “Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 622–646, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Hämäläinen, R. Nieminen, P. Vuorela, M. Heinonen, and E. Moilanen, “Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids: Genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-kappaB activation along with their inhibitory effect on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2007, Article ID 45673, 10 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Scalbert, I. T. Johnson, and M. Saltmarsh, “Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 215S–217S, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Gabay, “Interleukin-6 and chronic inflammation,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 8, supplement 2, p. S3, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. R. Bradley, “TNF-mediated inflammatory disease,” The Journal of Pathology, vol. 214, no. 2, pp. 149–160, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. D. Gilmore, “Introduction to NF-κB: players, pathways, perspectives,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 51, pp. 6680–6684, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Da̧bek, A. Kułach, and Z. Ga̧sior, “Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB): a new potential therapeutic target in atherosclerosis?” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 778–783, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. P. Tak and G. S. Firestein, “NF-κB: a key role in inflammatory diseases,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Dutta, Y. Fan, N. Gupta, G. Fan, and C. Gélinas, “Current insights into the regulation of programmed cell death by NF-κB,” Oncogene, vol. 25, no. 51, pp. 6800–6816, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Guo et al., “Blocking of JB6 cell transformation by tanshinone IIA: epigenetic reactivation of Nrf2 antioxidative stress pathway,” The AAPS Journal, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1214–1225, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. Q. Wu, M. Wang, and J. E. Simon, “Determination of isoflavones in red clover and related species by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1016, no. 2, pp. 195–209, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D.-Y. Zhou, N. Ding, J. van Doren et al., “Effects of curcumin analogues for inhibiting human prostate cancer cells and the growth of human PC-3 prostate xenografts in immunodeficient mice,” Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1029–1034, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. L. Singleton, “Citation classic—colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents,” Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology & Environmental Sciences, vol. 48, p. 18, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  28. C. L. Saw, Y. Guo, A. Y. Yang et al., “The berry constituents quercetin, kaempferol, and pterostilbene synergistically attenuate reactive oxygen species: Involvement of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 72, pp. 303–311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. H. Lee, K.-R. Lee, Z.-Y. Su et al., “In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of a novel 4,6-bis ((E)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyryl)-1-phenethylpyrimidine-2(1H)-thione,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Ducrey, J. L. Wolfender, A. Marston, and K. Hostettmann, “Analysis of flavonol glycosides of thirteen Epilobium species (Onagraceae) by LC-UV and thermospray LC-MS,” Phytochemistry, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 129–137, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M.-J. Dubber and I. Kanfer, “High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of selected flavonols in Ginkgo biloba solid oral dosage forms,” Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 303–309, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. L. L. Saw, A. Y. Yang, Y. Guo, and A. N. T. Kong, “Astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids individually and in combination protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2-ARE pathway,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 62, pp. 869–875, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. L.-L. Saw, M. Cintrón, T.-Y. Wu et al., “Pharmacodynamics of dietary phytochemical indoles I3C and DIM: induction of Nrf2-mediated phase II drug metabolizing and antioxidant genes and synergism with isothiocyanates,” Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 289–300, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus