Journal of Aging Research has recently been accepted into Emerging Sources Citation Index.
Journal of Aging Research is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles and review articles on all aspects of gerontology and geriatric medicine.
Journal of Aging Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Gender and Age Patterns in NSGA Swim Competitions
We estimate two common nonlinear models (quadratic and semilog) and one new model (exponential) of the time-age relationship in 500-yard freestyle swim times in the U.S. National Senior Games (ages 50 and up) in six biennial NSGA competitions (2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019) for 468 men and 587 women. We use OLS and quantile regression (25%, 50%, and 75%) separately for each gender. The semilog model predicts faster times than the quadratic or exponential models. Our hypothesis that women slow down faster than men after age 50 is supported by both models as well as by our unique within-gender comparisons. Our findings of a nonlinear performance decline agree with studies of elite swimmers (Olympic, FINA). Our first-time study of NSGA data provides new guidelines to inform senior competitors. Our findings will assist trainers and community organizations that support NSGA competitions to promote a healthy senior lifestyle.
The Relationship between the Activity Balance Confidence and Mobility Tests among Older Adults in Indonesia
Introduction. Unsteady gait, instability, and lower extremity muscle weakness are some of the risk factors for falls. Reduced balance is a further precursor of falls, and injuries adversely affect the instability. In doing an activity without losing their balance, confidence among older adults is also crucial because it will influence their mobility. Objectives. The objective of this study is to examine the association between activity balance confidence and functional mobility, including gait, balance, and strength, among older adults. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among older adults living in long-term care facilities and community dwellings. A total of 326 older adults (>60 years old) participated in this study from three provinces in Java Island, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were older adults living independently and without obstacles in communication, who have no hearing loss, and who agreed to be respondents. The activity-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale determines the level of confidence. The participants were asked about their balance confidence not to lose their balance while doing 16 activities. The dependent variable is the mobility test, including a gait test using TUG (times up and go) to see how the subjects stand, walk, and turn around; a balance test (four stages); and a strength test (30-second chair stand). Results. The results of the ABC scale showed the respondents felt the most confidence not to lose their balance when they walk around the house (82.01%) and the less confidence when they stepped onto or off an escalator while holding onto a railing (37.7%). The gait, balance, and strength test revealed that 51.2% of the respondents showed an unsteady gait, 63.8% showed instability that felt awkward and unusual when standing on one leg, and 60.1% of the participants showed muscle weakness. The bivariate analysis significantly correlated the ABC scale test and all mobility tests. The older adult participants who are not confident will have 12.03 times higher the unstable result of the gait test, 8.4 times higher the unstable result of the balance test, and 7.47 times higher the less strength result of the strength test who are confident. Conclusion. Older adults who lack balance confidence showed significantly poorer results in mobility tests.
Visceral Adipose Tissue Influence on Health Problem Development and Its Relationship with Serum Biochemical Parameters in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Literature Review
Background. The amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) tends to increase with age and is associated with several health problems, such as cardiometabolic diseases, increased infections, and overall mortality. Objectives. This review provides a general assessment of how visceral adiposity correlates with the development of health problems and changes in serum biochemical parameters in middle-aged and older adults. Methods. We searched specific terms in the Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases for VAT articles published in the English language between 2009 and 2019 related to older adults. Results. The search found twenty-three publications in this period, of which nine were excluded. The publications had a population aged between 42 and 83 years and correlated the VAT area ratio with several comorbidities (such as pancreatitis, depression, cancer, and coronary heart disease) and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusion. Further research on the association between visceral obesity and the emergence of health problems and the relationship between VAT and changes in serum biochemical parameters in older individuals should deepen the understanding of this connection and develop preventive actions.
Self-Reported Cognitive Function in Persons with Nonneurological Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review
Background. Globally, one in three adults has a chronic condition. Many chronic diseases that are not neurological in nature (e.g., diabetes and heart failure) are increasingly associated with cognitive symptoms. However, the instruments used to assess cognitive symptoms in those with nonneurologic chronic illness are heterogeneous, and questions remain as to how cognitive symptoms may be related to demographic and clinical outcome variables, neurocognitive test performance, and other patient-reported outcomes. In this review, we describe associations among self-reported cognitive function, cognitive performance, and additional patient-reported outcomes as well as how cognitive symptoms are measured in nonneurologic chronic illness. Method. Multiple databases (PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, EMBASE, SCOPUS, the Cochrane Library, and Academic Search Complete) were searched for studies from 1990 to 2020 that provided data on self-reported cognitive symptoms in those with nonneurological chronic conditions. Initial search yielded 304 articles, of which 32 met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Results. Thirty-two total studies were included: twenty cross-sectional, 10 longitudinal, and 2 randomized controlled trials. The tools used to assess self-reported cognitive function in the studies were heterogeneous: 28 unique tools were used. Thirty studies examined associations among self-reported cognitive function and other patient-reported outcomes. In 19 there were significant associations. Six studies showed no significant associations between neuropsychological tests and self-reported cognitive function; another 6 studies found a significant association. Conclusion. Tools to assess cognitive symptoms were heterogeneous. In most studies, self-reported cognitive symptoms were not correlated with neuropsychological test results, but the majority of studies found a strong association between self-reported cognitive function and other patient-reported outcomes. Implications. Consensus on measuring cognitive symptoms would facilitate cross-study comparisons and facilitate scientific progress in those with nonneurological chronic conditions. Based on these results, there is a need to establish a standardized approach for self-reported cognitive function measurement in patients with nonneurologic chronic illness.
Simultaneous Dual-Task Interventions That Improve Cognition in Older Adults: A Scoping Review of Implementation-Relevant Details
Cognitive change occurs as a person ages and may result in decreased cognitive functioning in older adults (60 years and older). Simultaneous dual-task (SDT) interventions—activities that require the person to engage physically and cognitively at the same time—are effective in improving cognition in this group. This scoping review analysed published implementation-relevant details about effective SDT interventions, to assist the translation of the available evidence into various practice needs and contexts. A total of 23 databases were searched for relevant studies published between 2009 and 2020 inclusively. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that revealed statistically significant improvement in one or more aspects of cognitive function were appraised for methodological quality, using the Joanna Briggs Institute RCT checklist. The 14 RCTs scoring over 50% on the checklist were further analysed. Implementation-relevant data—for example, intervention nature, session length and frequency, equipment and space requirements, target group, and outcomes—were extracted, collated, and synthesised. The effective SDT interventions varied considerably in their nature and outcomes, meaning that suitable SDT interventions exist for a range of contexts. However, the resources required to implement some of the interventions either were not reported and/or may be prohibitive in some real-world practice contexts. Whilst “challenge” and “group interaction” were common features of effective SDT interventions, most studies failed to report on key implementation details required to facilitate translation into practice. It also remains unclear for how long the cognitive benefits are sustained following an effective SDT intervention. In future, more consistent publication of information about how to implement effective SDT interventions, for whom these interventions are engaging/enjoyable, and why would help to translate the available research into improved cognitive outcomes for older adults.
Association between Sarcopenia and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, Myostatin, and Insulin Resistance in Elderly Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis
Sarcopenia is common in hemodialysis patients, especially in the elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis. Various factors may contribute to the occurrence of sarcopenia, such as anabolic and catabolic imbalance. This study aims to investigate the correlation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels as an anabolic factor, myostatin levels, and insulin resistance as catabolic factors with sarcopenia in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis. A total of 40 subjects aged 60 years or more who undergoing hemodialysis in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya were included in this cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to Asian Working Group Sarcopenia 2019 criteria. IGF-1, myostatin, and insulin resistance levels were measured once before hemodialysis. Subjects with sarcopenia diagnosis were 33 (82.5%), that is, 19 (47.5%) men and 14 (35%) women. There were 28 (70%) of the subjects diagnosed with severe sarcopenia. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the characteristics and geriatric parameters between the sarcopenia and nonsarcopenia groups. There were differences between the two groups in hemoglobin levels, IGF-1 levels, myostatin levels, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels, muscle mass, handgrip strength, body mass index status, mini nutritional assessment status, and physical activity scale for elderly status (all < 0.05). Correlation analyses showed that IGF-1 levels negatively correlated with sarcopenia status in elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis ( < 0.05). On the contrary, myostatin and HOMA-IR levels were positively correlated with sarcopenia status in elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis (all < 0.05). Based on this recent study, IGF-1, myostatin, and insulin resistance were significantly correlated with sarcopenia in elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis.