Journal of Aging Research has recently been accepted into Emerging Sources Citation Index.
Journal of Aging Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles and clinical studies on all aspects of gerontology and geriatric medicine.
Journal of Aging Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Gaps in Hospice and Palliative Care Research: A Scoping Review of the North American Literature
Background. The demand for hospice and palliative care is growing as a result of the increase of an aging population, which is most prominent in North America. Despite the importance of the topic and an increase in hospice and palliative care utilization, there still are gaps in research and evidence within the field. Aim. To determine what gaps currently exist in hospice and palliative/end-of-life care research within the context of a North American setting to ensure that future directions are grounded in appropriate evidence. Methods. Using Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review framework, six peer-reviewed, and four grey electronic literature databases in healthcare and the social sciences were searched in mid-2019. 111 full-text articles were retrieved, with 25 articles and reports meeting the inclusion criteria. Major themes were identified through thematic context analysis: (1) clinical, (2) system access to care, (3) research methodology, and (4) caregiving-related research gaps. Results. Findings include strategies for engaging stakeholder organizations and funding agencies, implications for other stakeholder groups such as clinicians and researchers, and highlight implications for policy (e.g., national framework discussion) and practice (e.g., healthcare provider education and training and public awareness). Conclusion. Reviewing and addressing targeted research gaps is essential to inform future directions in Canada and beyond.
Circulating Interleukin-6 (but Not Other Immune Mediators) Associates with Criteria for Fried’s Frailty among Very Old Adults
Background and Aim. Frailty is a geriatric condition resulting from physiological changes covering the musculoskeletal, immune, and neuroendocrine systems, leading to a greater inflammatory state. The present research aimed to investigate the association of components of Fried’s frailty (as well as of the phenotype as a whole) with total serum levels of a panel of inflammatory mediators. Methods. One hundred and sixty-one very old patients (aged ≥80 years) devoid of cognitive decline were eligible for analyses. Clinical and biochemical data along with physical and cognitive assessments encompassing dual-energy X-ray scans and hand dynamometry were adopted to investigate frailty criteria, while circulating immune mediators (IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα) were assessed using high-throughput flow cytometry. Results. Preliminarily, IL-6 correlated positively with waist-to-hip ratio and C-reactive protein and negatively with glycemia. In analyses controlled for these factors, serum levels of IL-6 were comparatively augmented among the very old participants with reduced grip strength (OR = 3.299; 95% CI 1.08–6.09; ) and among those with slow walk speed (OR = 2.460; 95% CI 1.16–7.05; ). Conclusions. Our study shows a strong negative correlation of IL-6 levels with Fried’s frailty components of grip strength and walk speed in very old adults, regardless of confounding factors.
Loneliness Relates to Functional Mobility in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The Look AHEAD Study
Objective. Little is known about the impact of loneliness on physical health among elderly individuals with diabetes. Here, we examined the relationship of loneliness with disability, objective physical function, and other health outcomes in older individuals with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity. Method. Data are drawn from the Look AHEAD study, a diverse cohort of individuals (ages 61–92) with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes measured 5–6 years after a 10-year weight loss randomized, controlled trial. Results. Loneliness scores were significantly associated with greater disability symptoms and slower 4-meter gait speed (). Loneliness did not differ across treatment arms. Discussion. Overall, these results extend prior findings relating loneliness to disability and decreased mobility to older individuals with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity.
Differences in Physical Activity between Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease and Healthy Subjects
Objectives. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a significant prognostic marker of poor long-term survival due to limited physical activity associated with various functional problems, such as intermittent claudication. A physically active lifestyle has the potential to modify peripheral artery risk factors and promote general health. While low daily physical activity levels have been recognized in the population of PAD, the exact level has yet to be quantified due to lack of research. The aim of the present study was to compare physical activity level (PAL) and time spent at activities of different intensity levels between patients with PAD and healthy individuals. The study subjects were 10 patients with PAD and 10 age-matched healthy control subjects. We measured the time spent at light, moderate, or vigorous physical activity using triaxial accelerometer and calculated PAL. Intermittent claudication onset distance and maximum walking distance were defined as the distance walked at which the subject first reported leg pain and the distance at which the subject was unable to continue walking because of leg pain, respectively. Results. Our results showed (i) lower PAL in patients with PAD compared with the controls; (ii) while there was no significant difference in the high-intensity activity between the two groups, the light- and moderate-intensity activities of the PAD group were significantly lower than the controls, the time spent at moderate-intensity activity was approximately 50% less; and (iii) among patients with PAD, low PAL did not correlate directly with intermittent claudication. Conclusions. PAD patients limit the amount of their physical activity, especially light and moderate intensities. Our study highlights the importance of spending more time walking in daily life.
Association of Vitamin D with the TaqI Polymorphism of the VDR Gene in Older Women Attending the Basic Health Unit of the Federal District, DF (Brazil)
Aging is accompanied by various functional modifications determined by their environment, lifestyle, nutrition, and genetics. Based on these factors, it is essential to verify the vitamin deficiency in the elderly population. Hypovitaminosis D is commonly present in human aging, increasing the chances of developing noncommunicable chronic diseases. The VDR gene TaqI polymorphism may modify the vitamin D metabolic pathway by altering the interaction between the vitamin D receptor and the active circulating vitamin D. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between serum vitamin D and biochemical and genetic factors, considering the TaqI polymorphism of the VDR gene, in an elderly population of the Federal District. The study was a descriptive, case-control, quantitative, and cross-sectional type and was conducted in two basic health units in the administrative region of Ceilândia, Federal District, DF, Brazil, with women aged 60 years or older. Anthropometric, biochemical, and genetic parameters (VDR TaqI polymorphism) were evaluated. The adopted significance level was 5%, and statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 20.0 program. The study consisted of 128 participants. The most prevalent age was from 60 to 65 years (N = 53; 41.4%). 66 elderly (51.6%) were part of the case group (hypovitaminosis D), while 62 were in the control group. In the case group, 30.2% had grade I obesity, 77.3% were hypertensive, and 51.5% were diabetic. The TT genotype was present in 47% of the case group and 54.8% in the control group (). There was no association between serum vitamin D levels and the VDR gene variant TaqI polymorphism in an elderly Brazilian population.
Multicomponent Exercise Training Improves Gait Ability of Older Women Rather than Strength Training: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of multicomponent and strength training programs on dynamic balance, functional capacity, and gait ability in older women. Methods. Thirty individuals (67 ± 4.3 years; 30.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2) were trained for 12 weeks (3 times per week), following multicomponent (MG: exercises focusing on agility, balance, muscle strength, and aerobic) and strength programs (SG: lower limbs strength exercise). Results. Peak torque of hip flexors () and extensors () and knee flexors () of SG was greater than that of MG at posttraining. In addition, both groups increased peak torque of knee extensors () and plantar extensors with higher effect size for SG (d = −0.41 and −0.48), whereas MG presented higher effect size for plantar flexors muscles (d = −0.55). Only the SG improved the rate of torque development of knee extensors (29%; ), and this variable was also greater to SG than MG at posttraining (106%). The SG and MG improved dynamic balance although SG presented higher effect size (d = 0.61). Both groups improved the performance on 30 s sit to stand test () with higher effect size for MG (d = −0.54). Only the MG improved the stride length (4%; ) and gait speed (10%; ). In addition, the groups improved toe clearance () and heel contact () with higher effect sizes for MG (d = −0.066 and 1.07). Conclusion. Strength training should be considered to increase muscle function and dynamic balance in older women, whereas multicomponent training should be considered to increase functional capacity and gait ability in this population.