Journal of Aging Research / 2010 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Humor Therapy: Relieving Chronic Pain and Enhancing Happiness for Older Adults

Table 1

Demographic data for participants of experimental and control groups.

Experimental group (%) = 36 mean (SD) Control group (%) = 34 mean (SD) -value#

Sex.052

Female15 (42)23 (68)
Male21 (58)11 (32)

Age.365

Mean78.2579.38
Range60–8965–92

Time spent in nursing home (years).082

1–3 years15 (42)20 (59)
4–6 years11 (31)12 (35)
7–9 years6 (17)2 (6)
≥10 years4 (11)0 (0)

Past health history (more than one can be selected)

Stroke5 (14)2 (6).264
Hypertension17 (47)16 (47).989
DM6 (17)14 (41).045*
Cardiac disease6 (17)3 (9).534
Others23 (64)20 (59).850

Pain scores (baseline)

Pain scores5.19 ± 2.125.50 ± 1.88.612

Situation of pain (more than one can be selected)

Any time7 (19)8 (24).677
Sleeping10 (28)13 (38).352
Waking up5 (14)4 (12).791
Exercising16 (44)23 (68).051
Grooming0 (0)4 (12).109
Others4 (11)0 (0).137
No22 (61)23 (68)

Use of medications as pain relief

Yes14 (39)11 (32).748
No22 (61)23 (68)

may not add up to 100% because of rounding.
-square test was used.
-value of <.05 was considered statistically significant.

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