Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 480890, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/480890
Clinical Study

Cognitive Stimulation for Apathy in Probable Early-Stage Alzheimer's

1The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, HHP 420A, Walker Street, Greensboro, NC 27402, USA
2Decker School of Nursing, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13906, USA
3Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA

Received 9 December 2010; Accepted 2 March 2011

Academic Editor: Willem A. Van Gool

Copyright © 2011 Linda L. Buettner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. E. Hebert, P. A. Scherr, J. L. Bienias, D. A. Bennett, and D. A. Evans, “Alzheimer disease in the US population: prevalence estimates using the 2000 census,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1119–1122, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Buettner, S. Fitzsimmons, and S. Atav, “Predicting outcomes of therapeutic recreation interventions for older adults with dementia and behavioral symptoms,” Therapeutic Recreation Journal, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 33–47, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  3. K. M. Sink, K. F. Holden, and K. Yaffe, “Pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: a review of the evidence,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, no. 5, pp. 596–608, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Buettner and S. Fitzsimmons, “Mixed behaviors in dementia: the need for a paradigm shift,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 15–22, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. S. Marin, “Apathy: a neuropsychiatric syndrome,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 243–254, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. A. Boyle and P. F. Malloy, “Treating apathy in Alzheimer's disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 17, no. 1-2, pp. 91–99, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. E. Starkstein, L. Ingram, M. L. Garau, and R. Mizrahi, “On the overlap between apathy and depression in dementia,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 1070–1074, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. M. Landes, S. D. Sperry, M. E. Strauss, and D. S. Geldmacher, “Apathy in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 1700–1707, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. E. Starkstein, R. Jorge, R. Mizrahi, and R. G. Robinson, “A prospective longitudinal study of apathy in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 8–11, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Levy and B. Dubois, “Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 916–928, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. C. Burgener, L. L. Buettner, K. Coen Buckwalter et al., “Evidence supporting nutritional interventions for persons in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD),” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 18–21, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Buettner, “Community-based RT. Peace of mind: a pilot community-based program for older adults with memory loss,” Journal of Recreation Therapy, pp. 42–48, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Fitzsimmons and L. L. Buettner, “Therapeutic recreation interventions for need-driven dementia-compromised behaviors in community-dwelling elders,” American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 367–381, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Verkaik, J. C. M. van Weert, and A. L. Francke, “The effects of psychosocial methods on depressed, aggressive and apathetic behaviors of people with dementia: a systematic review,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 301–314, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Buettner and S. Fitzsimmons, “Promoting health in Alzheimer’s disease: evaluation of a 12-week course for people with early stage dementia,” Journal of Gerontological Nursing. In press.
  16. A. M. Kolanowski, L. Buettner, D. M. Fick, S. Fitzsimmons, and M. Cornacchione, “Instituting cognitive rehabilitation in post-acute care,” Annals of Long-Term Care, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 40–46, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. L. Gould, B. Arroyo, R. G. Brown, A. M. Owen, E. T. Bullmore, and R. J. Howard, “Brain mechanisms of successful compensation during learning in Alzheimer disease,” Neurology, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1011–1017, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. I. Rapoport, “Functional brain imaging in the resting state and during activation in Alzheimer's disease. Implications for disease mechanisms involving oxidative phosphorylation,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 893, pp. 138–153, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. S. Marin, “Apathy: a neuropsychiatric syndrome,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 243–254, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  21. B. Winblad, K. Palmer, M. Kivipelto et al., “Mild cognitive impairment—beyond controversies, towards a consensus: report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 256, no. 3, pp. 240–246, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, “‘Mini mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Fitzsimmons, Brain Fitness, Venture, State College, Pa, USA, 2008.
  24. S. Fitzsimmons, “Brain fitness for older adults with dementia,” Activities Directors' Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 36–40, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. E. Ready and B. R. Ott, “Quality of life measures for dementia,” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 1, article no. 11, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Kroenke, R. L. Spitzer, and J. B. W. Williams, “The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 606–613, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. D. Corrigan and N. S. Hinkeldey, “Relationships between Parts A and B of the Trail Making Test,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 402–409, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. Breuil, J. De Rotrou, F. Forette et al., “Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 211–217, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. T. Woods, “Psychological ‘therapies’ in dementia,” in Handbook of the Clinical Psychology of Ageing, R. T. Woods, Ed., pp. 575–600, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. L. Willis, S. L. Tennstedt, M. Marsiske et al., “Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 296, no. 23, pp. 2805–2814, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus