Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 651931, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/651931
Research Article

Higher Levels and Intensity of Physical Activity Are Associated with Reduced Mortality among Community Dwelling Older People

1National Health Primary Care Trust Westminster, 15 Marylebone Road, London NW1 5JD, UK
2Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, UK
3Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK

Received 27 August 2010; Accepted 21 December 2010

Academic Editor: Ben Hurley

Copyright © 2011 Eva Hrobonova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. K. Roberts and R. J. Barnard, “Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 3–30, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. G. Wannamethee and A. G. Shaper, “Physical activity in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: an epidemiological perspective,” Sports Medicine, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 101–114, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. R. Pate, M. Pratt, S. N. Blair et al., “Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no. 5, pp. 402–407, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. D. McArdle, F. I. Katch, and V. L. Katch, Exercise Physiology : Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 6th edition, 2006.
  5. J. J. Keysor, “Does late-life physical activity or exercise prevent or minimize disablement? A critical review of the scientific evidence,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 25, supplement 2, pp. 129–136, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Young and S. Dinan, “Activity in later life,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7484, pp. 189–191, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. “At least five a week: evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health, in Physical Activity, Health Improvement and Prevention,” Report from the Chief Medical Officer, Department of Health, London, UK, 2004.
  8. WHO, Keep Fit for Life: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Older Persons, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002.
  9. L. B. Andersen, P. Schnohr, M. Schroll, and H. O. Hein, “All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 11, pp. 1621–1628, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. C. H. Bijnen, E. J. M. Feskens, C. J. Caspersen, N. Nagelkerke, W. L. Mosterd, and D. Kromhout, “Baseline and previous physical activity in relation to mortality in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 150, no. 12, pp. 1289–1296, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. A. Hakim, H. Petrovitch, C. M. Burchfiel et al., “Effects of walking on mortality among nonsmoking retired men,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 2, pp. 94–99, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Kilander, L. Berglund, M. Boberg, B. Vessby, and H. Lithell, “Education, lifestyle factors and mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. A 25-year follow-up of Swedish 50-year-old men,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1119–1126, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Oguma, H. D. Sesso, R. S. Paffenbarger, and I. M. Lee, “Physical activity and all cause mortality in women: a review of the evidence,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 162–172, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Schnohr, H. Scharling, and J. S. Jensen, “Changes in leisure-time physical activity and risk of death: an observational study of 7,000 men and women,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 639–644, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Woodcock, O. H. Franco, N. Orsini, and I. Roberts, “Non-vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies,” International Journal of Epidemiology. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A. E. Fletcher, D. A. Jones, C. J. Bulpitt, and A. J. Tulloch, “The MRC trial of assessment and management of older people in the community: objectives, design and interventions [ISRCTN23494848],” BMC health services research, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 21, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. E. Fletcher, G. M. Price, E. S. W. Ng et al., “Population-based multidimensional assessment of older people in UK general practice: a cluster-randomised factorial trial,” The Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9446, pp. 1667–1677, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, ““Mini mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. I. Sheikh and J. A. Yesavage, “Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version,” Clinical Gerontologist, vol. 37, pp. 819–820, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  20. G. A. Rose, “The diagnosis of ischaemic heart pain and intermittent claudication in field surveys,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 27, pp. 645–658, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. “Allied Dunbar national fitness survey. Main findings,” S.l.]: Allied Dunbar[in association with]Health Education Authority[and]Sports Council. p. 160, 1992.
  22. V. Carstairs and R. Morris, Deprivation and Health in Scotland, Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, UK, 1991.
  23. P. A. Bath and K. Morgan, “Customary physical activity and physical health outcomes in later life,” Age and Ageing, vol. 27, supplement 3, pp. 29–34, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Ueshima, K. Ishikawa-Takata, T. Yorifuji et al., “Physical activity and mortality risk in the Japanese elderly. A cohort study,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 410–418, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. O. Bembom, M. Van Der Laan, T. Haight, and I. Tager, “Leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality in an elderly cohort,” Epidemiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 424–430, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. E. Hubbard, N. Fallah, S. D. Searle, A. Mitnitski, and K. Rockwood, “Impact of exercise in community-dwelling older adults,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 7, Article ID e6174, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Z. LaCroix, S. G. Leveille, J. A. Hecht, L. C. Grothaus, and E. H. Wagner, “Does walking decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and death in older adults?” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 113–120, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Landi, M. Cesari, G. Onder, F. Lattanzio, E. M. Gravina, and R. Bernabei, “Physical activity and mortality in frail, community-living elderly patients,” Journals of Gerontology—Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 833–837, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. A. Talbot, C. H. Morrell, J. L. Fleg, and E. J. Metter, “Changes in leisure time physical activity and risk of all-cause mortality in men and women: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 45, no. 2-3, pp. 169–176, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Byberg, H. Melhus, R. Gedeborg et al., “Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 Year follow-up of population based cohort,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 7, p. 482, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. G. Wannamethee, A. G. Shaper, and M. Walker, “Changes in physical activity, mortality, and incidence of coronary heart disease in older men,” The Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9116, pp. 1603–1608, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Health Survey for England, HMSO, London, UK, 1993.
  33. D. A. Lawlor, M. Taylor, C. Bedford, and S. Ebrahim, “Is housework good for health? Levels of physical activity and factors associated with activity in elderly women. Results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 473–478, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. L. Klumb and H. Maier, “Daily activities and survival at older ages,” Journal of Aging and Health, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 594–611, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Stamatakis, M. Hamer, and D. A. Lawlor, “Physical activity, mortality, and cardiovascular disease: is domestic physical activity beneficial? The Scottish Health Survey—1995, 1998, and 2003,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 169, no. 10, pp. 1191–1200, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Asztalos, K. Wijndaele, I. De Bourdeaudhuij et al., “Specific associations between types of physical activity and components of mental health,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 468–474, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. N. Blair, W. L. Haskell, and P. Ho, “Assessment of habitual physical activity by a seven-day recall in a community survey and controlled experiments,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 794–804, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. J. Caspersen, K. E. Powell, and G. Christenson, “Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research,” Public Health Reports, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 126–131, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Rantanen and E. Heikkinen, “The role of habitual physical activity in preserving muscle strength from age 80 to 85 years,” Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 121–132, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Sihvonen, T. Rantanen, and E. Heikkinen, “Physical activity and survival in elderly people: a five-year follow-up study,” Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. P. Troiano, D. Berrigan, K. W. Dodd, L. C. Mâsse, T. Tilert, and M. Mcdowell, “Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 181–188, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. A. Fiatarone, E. C. Marks, N. D. Ryan, C. N. Meredith, L. A. Lipsitz, and W. J. Evans, “High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. Effects on skeletal muscle,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 263, no. 22, pp. 3029–3034, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar