Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 140968, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/140968
Clinical Study

Plantar Temperature Response to Walking in Diabetes with and without Acute Charcot: The Charcot Activity Response Test

1Southern Arizona Limb Salvage Alliance (SALSA), University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA
2Arizona Center on Aging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
3University of Michigan, Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
4Diabetic Foot and Wound Center, Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar

Received 1 May 2012; Accepted 25 June 2012

Academic Editor: Neil D. Reeves

Copyright © 2012 Bijan Najafi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Gazis, N. Pound, R. Macfarlane, K. Treece, F. Game, and W. Jeffcoate, “Mortality in patients with diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy (Charcot foot),” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1243–1246, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. W. Sohn, T. A. Lee, R. M. Stuck, R. G. Frykberg, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Mortality risk of charcot arthropathy compared with that of diabetic foot ulcer and diabetes alone,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 816–821, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. W. Sohn, R. M. Stuck, M. Pinzur, T. A. Lee, and E. Budiman-Mak, “Lower-extremity amputation risk after charcot arthropathy and diabetic foot ulcer,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 98–100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. C. Rogers, R. G. Frykberg, D. G. Armstrong et al., “The charcot foot in diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2123–2129, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. W. Jeffcoate, “The causes of the charcot syndrome,” Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 29–42, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. K. Wukich, W. Sung, S. A. M. Wipf, and D. G. Armstrong, “The consequences of complacency: managing the effects of unrecognized charcot feet,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 195–198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. K. Pakarinen, H. J. Laine, S. E. Honkonen, J. Peltonen, H. Oksala, and J. Lahtela, “Charcot arthropathy of the diabetic foot. Current concepts and review of 36 cases,” Scandinavian Journal of Surgery, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 195–201, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. G. Armstrong, W. F. Todd, L. A. Lavery, L. B. Harkless, and T. R. Bushman, “The natural history of acute Charcot's arthropathy in a diabetic foot specialty clinic,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 357–363, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. R. Clohisy and R. C. Thompson Jr., “Fractures associated with neuropathic arthropathy in adults who have juvenile-onset diabetes,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 1192–1200, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Fabrin, K. Larsen, and P. E. Holstein, “Long-term follow-up in diabetic charcot feet with spontaneous onset,” Diabetes Care, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 796–800, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. A. Herbst, K. B. Jones, and C. L. Saltzman, “Pattern of diabetic neuropathic arthropathy associated with the peripheral bone mineral density,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery B, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 378–383, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. S. Myerson, M. R. Henderson, T. Saxby, and K. W. Short, “Management of midfoot diabetic neuroarthropathy,” Foot and Ankle International, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 233–241, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Sinha, C. S. Munichoodappa, and G. P. Kozak, “Neuro-arthropathy (Charcot joints) in diabetes mellitus (clinical study of 101 cases),” Medicine, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 191–210, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. B. Leung, Y. C. Ho, and W. C. Wong, “Charcot foot in a Hong Kong Chinese diabetic population,” Hong Kong Medical Journal, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 191–195, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. G. Armstrong and L. A. Lavery, “Monitoring healing of acute Charcot's arthropathy with infrared dermal thermometry,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 317–321, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. G. Armstrong, L. A. Lavery, P. J. Liswood, W. F. Todd, and J. A. Tredwell, “Infrared dermal thermometry for the high-risk diabetic foot,” Physical Therapy, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 169–177, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Bem, A. Jirkovská, M. Dubský et al., “Role of quantitative bone scanning in the assessment of bone turnover in patients with Charcot foot,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 348–349, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. L. Petrova and M. E. Edmonds, “Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy—current standards,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 24, supplement 1, pp. S58–S61, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. J. Boulton, D. G. Armstrong, S. F. Albert et al., “Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment: a report of the task force of the foot care interest group of the American Diabetes Association, with endorsement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1679–1685, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  20. D. K. Wukich and W. Sung, “Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle: modern concepts and management review,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 409–426, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. K. Wukich, W. Sung, S. A. M. Wipf, and D. G. Armstrong, “The consequences of complacency: managing the effects of unrecognized Charcot feet,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 195–198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. G. Armstrong and E. J. Peters, “Charcot's arthropathy of the foot,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 390–394, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. Najafi, J. L. Helbostad, R. Moe-Nilssen, W. Zijlstra, and K. Aminian, “Does walking strategy in older people change as a function of walking distance?” Gait and Posture, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 261–266, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Najafi, T. Khan, and J. Wrobel, “Laboratory in a box: wearable sensors and its advantages for gait analysis,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society, vol. 2011, pp. 6507–6510, August 2011.
  25. K. Aminian, B. Najafi, C. Büla, P. F. Leyvraz, and P. Robert, “Spatio-temporal parameters of gait measured by an ambulatory system using miniature gyroscopes,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 689–699, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. B. Silver-Thorn, “Investigation of lower-limb tissue perfusion during loading,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 597–608, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Najafi, R. T. Crews, and J. S. Wrobel, “The importance of time spent standing for those at risk of diabetic foot ulceration,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2448–2450, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. G. Frykberg and R. Belczyk, “Epidemiology of the Charcot foot,” Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 17–28, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. J. Jeffcoate, F. Game, and P. R. Cavanagh, “The role of proinflammatory cytokines in the cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy (acute Charcot foot) in diabetes,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9502, pp. 2058–2061, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. A. Shapiro, K. B. Stansberry, M. A. Hill et al., “Normal blood flow response and vasomotion in the diabetic Charcot foot,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 147–153, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. T. Johnson, “Neuropathic fractures and joint injuries. Pathogenesis and rationale of prevention and treatment,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 1–30, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. J. M. Boulton, J. H. B. Scarpello, and J. D. Ward, “Venous oxygenation in the diabetic neuropathic foot: evidence of arteriovenous shunting?” Diabetologia, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 6–8, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. G. Armstrong and A. J. M. Boulton, “Activity monitors: should we begin dosing activity as we dose a drug?” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 152–153, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Najafi, R. T. Crews, and J. S. Wrobel, “Incorporating standing time into physical activity assessment of patients at risk of diabetic foot ulceration,” in Proceedings of the 70th American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions (ADA '10), Orlando, Fla, USA, June, 2010.
  35. J. S. Wrobel and B. Najafi, “Diabetic foot biomechanics and gait dysfunction,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 833–845, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. K. Wukich, W. Sung, S. A. M. Wipf, and D. G. Armstrong, “The consequences of complacency: managing the effects of unrecognized Charcot feet,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 195–198, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. V. Yu and J. R. Hudson, “Evaluation and treatment of stage 0 Charcot's neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 210–220, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Shibata, K. Tada, and C. Hashizume, “The results of athrodesis of the ankle for leprotic neuroarthropathy,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery A, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 749–756, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus