Journal of Aging Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Dynamic Associations of Change in Physical Activity and Change in Cognitive Function: Coordinated Analyses of Four Longitudinal Studies

Table 4

VLS participant characteristics.

MeasureYear of testing
Baseline
( 𝑁 = 9 7 7 )
Year 3
( 𝑁 = 7 2 3 )
Year 6
( 𝑁 = 5 7 1 )
Year 9
( 𝑁 = 4 1 2 )
Year 12
( 𝑁 = 2 8 2 )
Year 15
( 𝑁 = 9 1 )
Year 18
( 𝑁 = 5 2 )
M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)M (SD)

Retention from Previous testing (%)aβ€”747972687557
Age 68.6 (6.7)71.3 (6.6)73.7 (6.4)76.5 (5.9)79.3
(5.2)
82.2 (4.6)85.1 (3.6)
Years of education at baseline 14.9 (3.3)15.4 (3.2)15.6 (3.1)15.8 (3.1)15.9
(3.1)
15.2 (3.1)14.8 (2.8)
Sex, female
( 𝑛 (%))
614 (63)450 (62)348 (61)252 (61)177 (63)60 (66)35 (67)
Reasoningb11.2 (4.5)11.7 (4.2)10.4 (4.7)10.4 (4.6)9.9 (4.6) 7.5 (4.7) 6.5 (4.2)
Fluency 17.7 (4.3)17.9 (4.4)17.8 (4.4)17.2 (4.8)16.3 (4.9)14.7 (5.8)13.8 (5.4)
Memoryc13.7 (5.9)14.6 (6.0)14.7 (6.2)14.9 (6.4)11.8 (5.5)13.0 (6.3)β€”
Semantic knowledge 43.7 (7.4)44.7 (6.2)44.3 (6.0)44.2 (5.8)43.5 (5.7)42.7 (7.1)42.6 (6.6)
Physical activity15.4 (5.1)15.4 (5.1)
15.0 (4.9)14.8 (5.2)13.4 (5.1)14.0 (5.2)12.3 (5.0)
Physical activity change 0.0 (0.0)–0.1 (4.0)–0.8 (4.2)–1.3 (4.6)–2.8 (4.8)–2.7 (5.0)–4.4 (5.2)

M: mean, SD: standard deviation. The scoring range for each measure with a defined upper limit are as follows: Reasoning 0–20, Fluency 0-maximum number of words produced in 6 minutes, Memory 0–30, Vocabulary 0–54. Physical Activity 0–36. The physical activity change scores are on a normal metric with means of approximately 0 and SD of approximately 0.8.
aThe 1986 cohort was followed for up to 18 years, the 1993 cohort for up to 12.
bThe reasoning measure was not given until year 6 for the 1986 cohort.
cThe memory measure was not given in year 18.