Journal of Aging Research / 2012 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

Dynamic Associations of Change in Physical Activity and Change in Cognitive Function: Coordinated Analyses of Four Longitudinal Studies

Table 5

Mixed effects model summaries across four studies with baseline physical activity and activity change predicting four cognitive outcomes.

OCTO-TwinLBLSSLSVLS
𝑏 SE 𝑃 𝑏 SE 𝑃 𝑏 SE 𝑃 𝑏 SE 𝑃

Reasoning
 Intercept10.660.56<.00121.530.56<.00137.881.02<.0019.530.59<.001
 Age–0.370.120.002–0.620.05<.001–0.350.01<.001–0.250.02<.001
 Sex0.900.680.1862.120.810.0091.670.24<.001–0.010.310.969
 Education0.570.13<.0011.300.14<.0010.520.04<.0010.330.05<.001
 Activity1.190.400.003–0.500.400.209–0.570.890.5190.010.030.827
 Age × activity0.060.140.6990.030.040.5020.010.010.3980.000.000.587
 Education × activity–0.090.130.479–0.120.140.3720.000.040.9830.000.010.840
 Time–0.510.09<.001–0.460.09<.0010.150.100.141–0.240.03<.001
 Age × time–0.020.020.296–0.020.010.001–0.010.00<.001–0.010.00<.001
 Sex × time0.130.100.2060.090.110.4450.020.030.3180.000.030.968
 Education × time0.020.020.258–0.060.020.007–0.010.000.090–0.010.000.065
 Activity × time0.060.070.3540.040.060.5060.010.010.1830.000.000.332
 Activity change0.850.21<.0010.540.240.0280.180.090.0450.050.020.013

Fluency
 Intercept31.190.62<.00158.662.55<.00111.730.56<.001
 Age–0.250.05<.001–0.340.04<.001–0.100.03<.001
 Sex4.250.90<.0013.540.59<.0010.460.360.200
 Education1.040.16<.0011.290.11<.0010.640.05<.001
 Activity0.450.450.3144.4522.40.047–0.060.030.098
 Age × activity0.070.050.159–0.060.030.0700.000.000.952
 Education × activity–0.290.150.059–0.020.090.844–0.010.010.159
 Time–0.270.110.0130.780.230.001–0.130.03<.001
 Age × Time–0.030.010.001–0.020.00<.001–0.010.000.002
 Sex × Time–0.220.150.1320.130.050.0070.070.040.070
 Education × Time0.000.030.983–0.010.010.1060.000.010.950
 Activity × Time0.030.080.6800.050.020.0480.010.000.045
 Activity Change0.050.350.8940.410.200.0430/070.030.003

Memory
 Intercept8.590.31<.00110.780.20<.00123.500.74<.00117.360.42<.001
 Age–0.220.06<.001–0.190.02<.001–0.180.01<.001–0.190.02<.001
 Sex1.140.38<.0021.550.30<.0011.650.17<.0011.650.27<.001
 Education0.390.07<.0010.290.05<.0010.320.03<.0010.320.04<.001
 Activity0.480.220.0030.150.150.312–0.170.650.7890.050.030.042
 Age × Activity–0.090.080.2320.000.020.8170.000.010.6710.000.000.223
 Education × Activity0.020.070.837–0.050.050.346–0.030.030.2150.000.010.607
 Time–0.320.070.001–0.170.050.0010.330.08<.001–0.270.03<.001
 Age × Time–0.010.010.7000.000.000.578–0.010.00<.001–0.010.00<.001
 Sex × Time0.080.080.319–0.040.070.6010.030.020.077–0.020.030.469
 Education × Time0.010.020.9720.010.010.3790.000.000.449–0.010.000.232
 Activity × Time–0.020.050.660–0.020.040.5310.020.010.0780.000.000.202
 Activity Change0.440.150.004–0.080.150.5930.080.080.3090.060.020.001

Semantic knowledge
 Intercept30.210.85<.00138.360.56<.00123.41
1.29<.00143.860.71<.001
 Age–0.600.17<.001–0.260.05<.0010.010.020.5310.080.030.013
 Sex–3.881.04<.0011.470.810.0690.560.300.0690.020.470.971
 Education1.600.21<.0011.110.14<.0011.110.05<.0010.770.07<.001
 Activity0.850.570.134–0.540.400.1741.611.14–0.160–0.020.040.716
 Age × Activity0.020.200.914–0.020.040.672–0.020.020.1740.010.010.331
 Education × Activity–0.220.210.307–0.310.140.023–0.110.050.020–0.010.010.588
 Time–0.930.12<.001–0.440.09<.0010.450.08<.001–0.140.03<.001
 Age × Time–0.050.030.056–0.040.01<.001–0.010.00<.001–0.010.00<.001
 Sex × Time0.270.140.0540.080.120.4860.070.02<.0010.010.040.736
 Education × Time0.030.030.279–0.030.020.1340.000.000.792–0.010.010.152
 Activity × Time–0.020.090.8040.100.070.1470.010.010.0870.000.000.319
 Activity Change1.060.26<.001–0.040.250.8810.110.080.1480.020.020.258

Values represent model coefficients and their standard error. Across all studies, time was measured in years since baseline visit, and activity change was entered as a time-varying covariate. All other variables represent baseline measurements alone, in interaction with one another, or in interaction with time.