(i) Increased essential, nonessential, and total plasma amino acids concentration. (ii) Whole-body protein breakdown and net protein balance became statistically significantly better during HD in a dose-dependent manner.
(i) Increase in body weight, body mass index, triceps skinfold, and brachial circumference at the end of the third month. (ii) Results were confirmed at 6 months in 18 patients that completed the study (mean body weight gain—2.4 kg). (iii) The nutritional status improved in only 4 patients at the end of the study.
Identification and intervention on nutritional barriers (depression, poor knowledge, poor appetite, help with shopping or cooking, low fluid intake, inadequate dialysis dose, depression, difficulty chewing, difficulty swallowing, gastrointestinal symptoms, and acidosis)
(i) Intervention patients had greater increases in albumin levels compared with control patients after 1 year. (ii) Greater increases in energy intake and protein intake in the intervention patients. (iii) The intervention most effective for barriers related to poor nutritional knowledge, help needed with shopping or cooking, and difficulty swallowing.
Oral nutritional supplement specifically formulated for CHD patients
(i) Significant increases in concentrations of serum albumin and serum prealbumin. (ii) SGA score increased 14% by the end of the study.
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