Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Aging Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 973121, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/973121
Research Article

Do Depressive Traits and Hostility Predict Age-Related Decline in General Intelligence?

1Department of Public Health, Section of Environmental Health, Medical Psychology Unit, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5 A, 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
2Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health Science, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
3Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
5Department of Public Health, Section of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
6Danish Aging Research Center, Universities of Aarhus, Copenhagen and Southern Denmark, Denmark

Received 15 March 2012; Revised 2 June 2012; Accepted 10 June 2012

Academic Editor: Denis Gerstorf

Copyright © 2012 Erik Lykke Mortensen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. E. Hampson and H. S. Friedman, “Personality and health: a lifespan perspective,” in Handbook of Personality, O. P. John, R. W. Robins, and L. A. Pervin, Eds., pp. 770–794, The Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. D. Ryff, “Challenges and opportunities at the interface of aging, personality, and well-being,” in Handbook of Personality, O. P. John, R. W. Robins, and L. A. Pervin, Eds., pp. 399–4184, The Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. J. Lupien, B. S. McEwen, M. R. Gunnar, and C. Heim, “Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 434–445, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Crowe, R. Andel, N. L. Pedersen, L. Fratiglioni, and M. Gatz, “Personality and risk of cognitive impairment 25 years later,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 573–580, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Bolger and E. A. Schilling, “Personality and the problems of everyday life: the role of neuroticism in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors,” Journal of Personality, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 355–386, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Kotov, W. Gamez, F. Schmidt, and D. Watson, “Linking “Big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: A meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 768–821, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. L. Byers and K. Yaffe, “Depression and risk of developing dementia,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 323–331, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. L. Ackerman and E. D. Heggestad, “Intelligence, personality, and interests: evidence for overlapping traits,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 219–245, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. L. Mortensen, “The aging intellect,” in Geropsychology—The Psychology of the Aging Person, L. Larsen, Ed., pp. 65–95, Aarhus Universitetsforlag, Aarhus, Denmark, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. C. Barefoot, S. Larsen, L. von der Lieth, and M. Schroll, “Hostility, incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and mortality in a sample of older Danish men and women,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 477–484, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. C. Barefoot and M. Schroll, “Symptoms of depression, acute myocardial infarction, and total mortality in a community sample,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 11, pp. 1976–1980, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. L. Plassman, J. W. Williams, J. R. Burke, T. Holsinger, and S. Benjamin, “Systematic review: factors associated with risk for and possible prevention of cognitive decline in later life,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 182–193, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. C. Barefoot, E. L. Mortensen, M. J. Helms, K. Avlund, and M. Schroll, “A longitudinal study of gender differences in depressive symptoms from age 50 to 80,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 342–345, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. S. Hansen and E. L. Mortensen, “Dokumentation for den danske udgave af NEO PI-R og NEO PI-R kort version,” in NEO PI-R, E. L. Mortensen and H. S. Hansen, Eds., pp. 53–85, Dansk Psykologisk Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. Booth, J. Schinka, L. Brown, J. Mortimer, and A. Borenstein, “Five-factor personality dimensions, mood states, and cognitive performance in older adults,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 676–683, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Jelicic, H. Bosma, R. W. H. M. Ponds, M. P. J. Van Boxtel, P. J. Houx, and J. Jolles, “Neuroticism does not affect cognitive functioning in later life,” Experimental Aging Research, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. C. Barefoot and S. H. Boyle, “Hostility and proness to anger,” in Handbook of Individual Differences in Social Behavior, M. R. Leary and R. H. Hoyle, Eds., pp. 210–226, New York Guildford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  18. P. P. Vitaliano, D. Echeverria, J. Yi, P. E. M. Phillips, H. Young, and I. C. Siegler, “Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 402–411, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. L. Barnes, C. F. M. de Leon, J. L. Bienias, R. S. Wilson, S. A. Everson-Rose, and D. A. Evans, “Hostility and change in cognitive function over time in older blacks and whites,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 652–658, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. H. Pietrzak, P. Maruff, M. Woodward et al., “Mild worry symptoms predict decline in learning and memory in healthy older adults: a 2-year prospective cohort study,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 266–275, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. A. M. Bielak, D. Gerstorf, K. M. Kiely, K. J. Anstey, and M. Luszcz, “Depressive symptoms predict decline in perceptual speed in older adulthood,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 576–583, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. R. S. Wilson, D. A. Fleischman, R. A. Myers et al., “Premorbid proneness to distress and episodic memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 191–195, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. L. Mortensen and P. Høgh, “A gender difference in the association between APOE genotype and age-related cognitive decline,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. L. Mortensen and M. Kleven, “A WAIS longitudinal study of cognitive development during the life span from ages 50 to 70,” Developmental Neuropsychology, vol. 9, pp. 115–130, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  25. I. J. Deary, J. Corley, A. J. Gow et al., “Age-associated cognitive decline,” British Medical Bulletin, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 135–152, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Schroll, “A ten-year prospective study, 1964–1974, of cardiovascular risk factors in men and women from the Glostrup population born in 1914,” Danish Medical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 213–252, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Wechsler, The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult Intelligence, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1958.
  28. G. Hess, WAIS anvendt på 698 50-årige, Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1974.
  29. G. Hess, WAIS. Retesting af 528 60-årige, Dansk Psykologisk Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1983.
  30. M. Kyng, WAIS anvendt på 70-årige, Dansk Psykologisk Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1978.
  31. S. R. Hathaway and J. C. McKinley, Manual for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Psychological Corporation, New York, NY, USA, 1943.
  32. J. C. Barefoot, K. A. Dodge, B. L. Peterson, W. G. Dahlstrom, and R. B. Williams, “The Cook-Medley hostility scale: item content and ability to predict survival,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 46–57, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Svalastoga, Prestige, Class and Mobility, Gyldendal, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1959.
  34. J. Moutafi, A. Furnham, and I. Tsaousis, “Is the relationship between intelligence and trait neuroticism mediated by test anxiety?” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 587–597, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. S. Wilson, C. F. M. de Leon, D. A. Bennett, J. L. Bienias, and D. A. Evans, “Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in a community population of older persons,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 126–129, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Chodosh, D. M. Kado, T. E. Seeman, and A. S. Karlamangla, “Depressive symptoms as a predictor of cognitive decline: MacArthur studies of successful aging,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 406–415, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Ganguli, Y. Du, H. H. Dodge, G. G. Ratcliff, and C. C. Chang, “Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in late life: a prospective epidemiological study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. V. M. Dotson, S. M. Resnick, and A. B. Zonderman, “Differential association of concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms with cognitive decline in older adults,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 318–330, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. R. Derogatis, SCL-90-R: Symptom Checklist-90-R. Administration, Scoring and Procedures Manual, National Computer Systems, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 3rd edition, 1994.
  40. L. Radloff, “The CES-D scale: a self report depression scale for research in the general population,” Applied Psychological Measurement, vol. 1, pp. 385–401, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  41. G. E. Miller, E. Chen, and K. J. Parker, “Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 137, pp. 959–997, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  42. I. J. Deary, L. J. Whalley, and J. M. Starr, A Lifetime of Intelligence. Follow-Up Studies of the Scottish Mental Surveys of 1932 and 1947, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2009.
  43. K. W. Schaie, Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence. The Seattle Longitudinal Study, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2005.