Journal of Aging Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Morale in Old Age and Its Association with Sociodemographic, Social, and Health-Related Factors in Different Age Groups

Table 3

Estimated effects of age and sociodemographic, social, and health-related factors on morale according to linear regression models (n = 6460).

VariableCategoriesModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
Standardized estimateStandardized estimateStandardized estimateStandardized estimate

Age group66-year-oldsa
71-year-olds−0.065−0.066−0.073−0.046
76-year-olds−0.129−0.125−0.120−0.078
81-year-olds−0.170−0.165−0.141−0.088
86-year-olds−0.174−0.165−0.135−0.075
GenderMana
Woman−0.072−0.066−0.046
Educational levelLowera
Higher0.0060.002−0.007
Marital statusSinglea
In a relationship0.048−0.0100.004
RegionVästerbotten, Swedena
Swedish-speakers in Ostrobothnia, Finland−0.015−0.016−0.015
Finnish-speakers in Ostrobothnia and Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland0.0030.0220.002
Place of residenceUrbana
Semiurban−0.018−0.015−0.004
Rural0.0090.0050.001
Born in the same place as you live nowNoa
Yes0.0220.0090.018
Making ends meetWith difficultiesa
Without difficulties0.2170.1530.093
Contacts with children and grandchildrenLess frequenta
Frequent0.0430.032
Contacts with friends and neighborsLess frequenta
Frequent0.0330.026
Trust in friends and neighborsLowa
High0.1140.068
Number of confidants0-1a
2 or more0.0430.021
Active membership in an associationNone or passivea
1 or more0.0760.034
Perceived lonelinessNoa
Yes−0.305−0.144
Gone through a crisis during the preceding yearNoa
Yes−0.221−0.134
Impaired visionNoa
Yes0.001
Impaired hearingNoa
Yes−0.018
StrokeNoa
Yes−0.029
PainNoa
Yes−0.057
Sleeping wellNoa
Yes0.154
Own teethNoa
Yes−0.013
Independent in IADLNoa
Yes0.063
Independent in PADLNoa
Yes−0.006
Self-rated healthHigha
Poor−0.180
DepressionNoa
Yes−0.295
Adjusted R square0.0480.1080.2970.473
R square changed0.0610.1890.176

Note. Standardized betas are reported. Model 1 describes the association between age and PGCMS scores using dummy variables for each age group. Model 2 includes additionally sociodemographic variables. Model 3 includes also the social variables, and Model 4 includes additionally the health-related variables. aReference category. PGCMS: Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale; IADL: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; PADL: Personal Activities of Daily Living. , , and .

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