Journal of Aging Research / 2020 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Morale in Old Age and Its Association with Sociodemographic, Social, and Health-Related Factors in Different Age Groups

Table 4

Estimated joint effects of age and different sociodemographic, social, and health-related variables on morale (n = 6460).

VariableCategories66-year-olds71-year-olds76-year-olds81-year-olds86-year-olds
Standardized estimateStandardized estimateStandardized estimateStandardized estimateStandardized estimate

GenderMana
Woman−0.041−0.025−0.022−0.041−0.007
Educational levelLowera
Higher−0.008−0.0210.008−0.0030.011
Marital statusSinglea
In a relationship0.025−0.009−0.0170.024−0.009
RegionVästerbotten, Swedena
Swedish-speakers in Ostrobothnia, Finland−0.021−0.0130.009−0.0040.017
Finnish-speakers in Ostrobothnia and Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland−0.001−0.0020.013−0.0070.000
Place of residenceUrbana
Semiurban−0.0050.003−0.0040.002−0.007
Rural−0.0170.0090.0090.0010.012
Born in the same place as you live nowNoa
Yes0.0060.0180.0090.010−0.002
Making ends meetWith difficultiesa
Without difficulties0.0840.0750.0500.0860.019
Contacts with children and grandchildrenLess frequenta
Frequent0.0230.0290.0070.0160.027
Contacts with friends and neighborsLess frequenta
Frequent0.0390.018−0.001−0.0210.023
Trust in friends and neighborsLowa
High0.0420.0730.0540.0320.024
Number of confidants0-1a
2 or more0.0250.0230.0080.0150.003
Active membership in an associationNone or passivea
1 or more0.0150.0220.0470.011−0.002
Perceived lonelinessNoa
Yes−0.095−0.075−0.063−0.061−0.026
Gone through a crisis during the preceding yearNoa
Yes−0.096−0.105−0.063−0.060−0.033
Impaired visionNoa
Yes−0.0100.0000.0010.0100.003
Impaired hearingNoa
Yes−0.008−0.004−0.011−0.009−0.010
StrokeNoa
Yes−0.019−0.011−0.014−0.011−0.014
PainNoa
Yes−0.043−0.029−0.027−0.052−0.021
Sleeping wellNoa
Yes0.1510.1190.1240.1240.039
Own teethNoa
Yes0.002−0.021−0.003−0.010−0.015
Independent in IADLNoa
Yes0.0720.0520.0360.0170.019
Independent in PADLNoa
Yes−0.032−0.0150.0100.015−0.022
Self-rated healthHigha
Poor−0.116−0.108−0.094−0.078−0.057
DepressionNoa
Yes−0.169−0.178−0.120−0.114−0.093

Note. Standardized betas are reported. Estimates for the joint effect of age group and each explanatory variable are presented row-wise in the table. Separate models were calculated for each joint effect, while adjusting for the main effects of all the other explanatory variables. The joint effects were estimated within the age groups, not between them. The estimates for each joint effect were calculated by switching the reference categories, meaning that the row-wise values reported are in relation to reference categories within each age group, i.e., 66-year-old men are, for example, the reference category to 66-year-old women. a Reference category. PGCMS: Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale; IADL: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; PADL: Personal Activities of Daily Living. , , and .

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