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Journal of Advanced Transportation publishes theoretical and innovative papers on analysis, design, operations, optimization and planning of multi-modal transport networks, transit & traffic systems, transport technology and traffic safety.
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The Impact of Truck Proportion on Traffic Safety Using Surrogate Safety Measures in China
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the truck proportion on surrogate safety measures to explore the relationship between truck proportion and traffic safety. The relationship between truck proportion and traffic flow parameters was analyzed by correlation and partial correlation analysis, and the value of the 85th percentile speed minus the 15th percentile speed (85%V–15%V) and the speed variation coefficient were selected as surrogate safety measures to explore the impact of truck proportion on traffic status. The k-means algorithm and the support vector machine were employed to evaluate traffic status on a freeway under different truck proportions in different periods. The major results are that the relationship between truck proportion and the value of 85%V–15%V and the speed variation coefficient is consistent in different aggregation periods. With increasing truck proportion, the value of 85%V–15%V, as well as the speed variation coefficient, increases initially and then decreases. In addition, the traffic flow status tends to be dangerous when the truck proportion ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 and when the value of 85%V–15%V and the speed variation coefficient are above 42 km/h and 0.223, respectively. While the truck proportion is from 0.1 to 0.3 and from 0.7 to 0.9, the traffic flow is relatively safe on the condition that the value of 85%V–15%V and the speed variation coefficient were under 42 km/h and 0.223, respectively. Therefore, the relationship between truck proportion and traffic safety could be well revealed by two surrogate safety measures, that is, the value of 85%V–15%V and the speed variation coefficient. In addition, the k-means algorithm and the support vector machine can well reveal the impact of truck proportion on traffic safety in different periods. The findings of this study indicate a need for decreasing the disturbance of mixed traffic and the impact of the truck proportion on traffic safety status.
Optimal Pricing Strategy of Electric Vehicle Charging Station for Promoting Green Behavior Based on Time and Space Dimensions
Considering that the charging behaviors of users of electric vehicles (EVs) (including charging time and charging location) are random and uncertain and that the disorderly charging of EVs brings new challenges to the power grid, this paper proposes an optimal electricity pricing strategy for EVs based on region division and time division. Firstly, by comparing the number of EVs and charging stations in different districts of a city, the demand ratio of charging stations per unit is calculated. Secondly, according to the demand price function and the principle of profit maximization, the charging price between different districts of a city is optimized to guide users to charge in districts with more abundant charging stations. Then, based on the results of the zonal pricing strategy, the time-of-use (TOU) pricing strategy in different districts is discussed. In the TOU pricing model, consumer satisfaction, the profit of power grid enterprises, and the load variance of the power grid are considered comprehensively. Taking the optimization of the comprehensive index as the objective function, the TOU pricing optimization model of EVs is constructed. Finally, the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is introduced to solve the above optimization problems. The specific data of EVs in a municipality directly under the Central Government are taken as examples for this analysis. The empirical results demonstrate that the peak-to-valley ratio of a certain day in the city is reduced from 56.8% to 43% by using the optimal pricing strategy, which further smooth the load curve and alleviates the impact of load fluctuation. To a certain extent, the problem caused by the uneven distribution of electric vehicles and charging stations has been optimized. An orderly and reasonable electricity pricing strategy can guide users to adjust charging habits, to ensure grid security, and to ensure the economic benefits of all parties.
Time-Dependent Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Path Flexibility
With energy and environmental issues becoming increasingly prominent, electric vehicles (EVs) have become the important transportation means in the logistics distribution. In the real-world urban road network, there often exist multiple paths between any two locations (depot, customer, and charging station) since the time-dependent travel times. That is, the travel speed of an EV on each path may be different during different time periods, and thus, this paper explicitly considers path selection between two locations in the time-dependent electric vehicle routing problem with time windows, denoted as path flexibility. Therefore, the integrated decision-making should include not only the routing plan but also the path selection, and the interested problem of this paper is a time-dependent electric vehicle routing problem with time windows and path flexibility (TDEVRP-PF). In order to determine the optimal path between any two locations, an optimization model is established with the goal of minimizing the distance and the battery energy consumption associated with travel speed and cargo load. On the basis of the optimal path model, a 0-1 mixed-integer programming model is then formulated to minimize the total travel distance. Hereinafter, an improved version of the variable neighborhood search (VNS) algorithm is utilized to solve the proposed models, in which multithreading technique is adopted to improve the solution efficiency significantly. Ultimately, several numerical experiments are carried out to test the performance of VNS with a view to the conclusion that the improved VNS is effective in finding high-quality distribution schemes consisted of the distribution routes, traveling paths, and charging plans, which are of practical significance to select and arrange EVs for logistics enterprises.
Research on HOV Lane Priority Dynamic Control under Connected Vehicle Environment
The optimization of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane management can better improve the efficiency of road resources. This paper first summarized the current research on HOV lane implementation and analyzed and identifies the threshold of setting road HOV lane dynamic control under the connected vehicle environment. Then, the HOV lane priority dynamic control process was determined, and the operating efficiency and energy consumption evaluation method was proposed. Moreover, a case study in Wuxi City, China, was carried out. The results showed that, after implementing the HOV lane priority dynamic control, the total mileage of road network vehicles was saved by 4.93%, the average travel time per capita was reduced by 4.27%, and the total energy-saving rate of road network travel was 21.96%.
A Proportional-Switch Adjustment Model towards Mixed Equilibrium with Multiroute Choice Behaviour Criterion
Based on the price-quantity adjustment behaviour principle of the non-Walrasian equilibrium theory, this paper adopted a new QUE (quantity adjustment user equilibrium) criterion to formulate the route comfort choice behaviour. The purpose of the present paper is to establish a proportional-switch adjustment model which aims to reflect the route adjustment behaviour interaction between the traditional UE (user equilibrium) travellers and the QUE travellers and converge to a mixed equilibrium state. It is assumed that a group of road network travellers follow the UE criteria by choosing the travel route with the purpose of minimizing their route travel time (travel cost). In addition, the other group of travellers follow the QUE criteria by selecting the route with the largest residual capacity to achieve a more comfortable travel experience. The travel route adjustment behaviour of the two group travellers generates the dynamic traffic flow evolution towards the mixed equilibrium, and the route adjusting flow is proportional to the difference of traveller decision-making variable among the alternative routes. Simple illustrative examples are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed model, and the uniqueness and stability of the solution are demonstrated by applying the variational inequality and Lyapunov stability theorem.
Travel Time Prediction Model of Freeway Corridor Based on Real-Time Safety Reliability
By considering the feature of vehicle driving on the event management unit of the freeway corridor, according to the system target, a method to divide the management unit of the road network was put forward. The relative safety braking deceleration was taken as the evaluation index of single-vehicle driving risk. The reliability graph relationship and structure-function between the management unit and subunit were analyzed. Then, dynamic safety reliability and real-time safety reliability were determined on the basis of driving risk. In addition, the queuing and dissipating characteristics of the management unit under traffic incidents were analyzed based on the wave theory. The incident duration and dissipation time were also calculated. At the same time, the travel time prediction model of the incident management unit was set up when the real-time safety reliability was taken as a road resistance function. Finally, an improved travel time prediction model established in this paper is of great significance to improve traffic safety and efficiency, and the research results will provide an important theoretical foundation in the freeway corridor route decision.