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Journal of Advanced Transportation
Volume 2017, Article ID 8092718, 9 pages
Research Article

Doppler Effect-Based Automatic Landing Procedure for UAV in Difficult Access Environments

Institute of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. Sylwester Kaliski Str. No. 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Jan M. Kelner; lp.ude.taw@renlek.naj

Received 23 June 2017; Accepted 14 August 2017; Published 4 October 2017

Academic Editor: Seungjae Lee

Copyright © 2017 Jan M. Kelner and Cezary Ziółkowski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Currently, almost unrestricted access to low-lying areas of airspace creates an opportunity to use unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially those capable of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), in transport services. UAVs become increasingly popular for transporting postal items over small, medium, and large distances. It is forecasted that, in the near future, VTOL UAVs with a high take-off weight will also deliver goods to very distant and hard-to-reach locations. Therefore, UAV navigation plays a very important role in the process of carrying out transport services. At present, during the flight phase, drones make use of the integrated global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and the inertial navigation system (INS). However, the inaccuracy of GNSS + INS makes it unsuitable for landing and take-off, necessitating the guidance of a human UAV operator during those phases. Available navigation systems do not provide sufficiently high positioning accuracy for an UAV. For this reason, full automation of the landing approach is not possible. This paper puts forward a proposal to solve this problem. The authors show the structure of an autonomous system and a Doppler-based navigation procedure that allows for automatic landing approaches. An accuracy evaluation of the developed solution for VTOL is made on the basis of simulation studies.