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Journal of Advanced Transportation
Volume 2018, Article ID 1485652, 13 pages
Research Article

Real-Time Smart Parking Systems Integration in Distributed ITS for Smart Cities

1Instituto de Telecomunicações, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal
2Institute of Information Science and Technologies, National Research Council of Italy, Pisa, Italy
3Micro I/O, Sistemas Electrónicos, Lda, Aveiro, Portugal

Correspondence should be addressed to Gabriele Pieri; ti.rnc.itsi@ireip.eleirbag

Received 18 June 2018; Revised 7 September 2018; Accepted 24 September 2018; Published 21 October 2018

Academic Editor: Eneko Osaba

Copyright © 2018 Muhammad Alam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have evolved as a key research topic in recent years, revolutionizing the overall traffic and travel experience by providing a set of advanced services and applications. These data-driven services contribute to mitigate major problems arising from the ever growing need of transport in our daily lives. Despite the progress, there is still need for an enhanced and distributed solution that can exploit the data from the available systems and provide an appropriate and real-time reaction on transportation systems. Therefore, in this paper, we present a new architecture where the intelligence is distributed and the decisions are decentralized. The proposed architecture is scalable since the incremental addition of new peripheral subsystems is supported by the introduction of gateways which requires no reengineering of the communication infrastructure. The proposed architecture is deployed to tackle the problem of traffic management inefficiency in urban areas, where traffic load is substantially increased, by vehicles moving around unnecessarily, to find a free parking space. This can be significantly reduced through the availability and diffusion of local information regarding vacant parking slots to drivers in a given area. Two types of parking systems, magnetic and vision sensor based, have been introduced, deployed, and tested in different scenarios. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture, together with the proposed algorithms, is assessed in field trials.