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Journal of Advanced Transportation
Volume 2018, Article ID 9317291, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9317291
Research Article

Density-Based Statistical Clustering: Enabling Sidefire Ultrasonic Traffic Sensing in Smart Cities

Institute for Communication Technologies and Embedded Systems (ICE), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Volker Lücken; ed.nehcaa-htwr.eci@nekceul

Received 18 August 2017; Accepted 6 December 2017; Published 4 January 2018

Academic Editor: Mehmet Yildirimoglu

Copyright © 2018 Volker Lücken et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Traffic routing is a central challenge in the context of urban areas, with a direct impact on personal mobility, traffic congestion, and air pollution. In the last decade, the possibilities for traffic flow control have improved together with the corresponding management systems. However, the lack of real-time traffic flow information with a city-wide coverage is a major limiting factor for an optimum operation. Smart City concepts seek to tackle these challenges in the future by combining sensing, communications, distributed information, and actuation. This paper presents an integrated approach that combines smart street lamps with traffic sensing technology. More specifically, infrastructure-based ultrasonic sensors, which are deployed together with a street light system, are used for multilane traffic participant detection and classification. Application of these sensors in time-varying reflective environments posed an unresolved problem for many ultrasonic sensing solutions in the past and therefore widely limited the dissemination of this technology. We present a solution using an algorithmic approach that combines statistical standardization with clustering techniques from the field of unsupervised learning. By using a multilevel communication concept, centralized and decentralized traffic information fusion is possible. The evaluation is based on results from automotive test track measurements and several European real-world installations.